LAMIACEAE Clerodendrum

Clerodendrum [genus] (2,734)
Synonyms: Clerodendron [genus] Adans., Volkameria [genus] L.
C. aculeatum (1,540)
Synonyms: Clerodendron aculeatum Schlecht.
C. anafense (247)
C. buchananii (709)
Synonyms: Clerodendron buchanani Walp.
C. bungei (573)
C. chinense (2,237)
Synonyms: Clerodendron fragrans Willd., Clerodendrum fragrans Vent., Clerodendrum philippinum Schauer
C. colebrookianum (686)
C. cyrtophyllum (408)
C. discolor (297)
C. fistulosum (218)
C. floribundum (504)
C. glabrum (701)
Synonyms: Clerodendron glabrum E. Mey.
C. hildebrandtii (951)
Synonyms: Clerodendrum hilderbrandtii .
C. indicum (1,860)
Synonyms: Clerodendron indicum Kuntze
C. inerme (2,149)
Synonyms: Clerodendron inerme Benth.
C. infortunatum (655)
Synonyms: Clerodendron infortunatum Walp.
C. japonicum (646)
Synonyms: Clerodendron squamatum Vahl
C. kaempferi (656)
C. laciniatum (187)
C. ligustrinum (2,285)
Synonyms: Clerodendron ligustrina., Volkameria ligustrina Jacq.
C. lindleyi (537)
C. minahassae (601)
Synonyms: Clerodendron minahassae Teijsm. & Binn.
C. paniculatum (1,827)
Synonyms: Clerodendron paniculatum L.
C. phlomidis (509)
Synonyms: Clerodendron phlomoides Willd.
C. phyllomega (269)
C. rotundifolium (276)
C. speciosissimum (1,020)
Synonyms: Clerodendron speciosissimum .
C. splendens (1,041)
Synonyms: Clerodendron splendens G. Don
C. thomsoniae (1,753)
Synonyms: Clerodendron thomsoniae Balf.
C. tomentosum (425)
C. trichotomum (308)
C. villosum (525)
Synonyms: Clerodendron villosum Blume
C. x speciosum (435)
C. [buchholzii] (567)
Synonyms: Clerodendron buchholzii Gürke
C. [calamitosum] (834)
Synonyms: Clerodendron calamitosum L.
C. [capitatum] (747)
Synonyms: Clerodendron capitatum Schum. & Thonn.
C. [deflexum] (525)
Synonyms: Clerodendron deflexum Wall.
C. [disparifolium] (1,004)
Synonyms: Clerodendron disparifolium Blume
C. [formicarum] (428)
Synonyms: Clerodendron formicarum Gürke
C. [macrophyllum] (317)
Synonyms: Clerodendron macrophyllum Blume
C. [polycephalum] (340)
Synonyms: Clerodendron polycephalum Baker
C. [scandens] (401)
Synonyms: Clerodendron scandens Beauv.
C. [umbratile] (619)
Synonyms: Clerodendron umbratile King & Gamble
C. [verticillata] (650)
Synonyms: Volkameria verticillata.
C. [volubile] (490)
Synonyms: Clerodendron volubile Beauv.


LAMIACEAE Clerodendrum

Clerodendrum [genus] L. LAMIACEAE

Synonyms: Clerodendron [genus] Adans., Volkameria [genus] L.

Common names: Glory-Bower, Kashmir-Bouquet, Tubeflower (Hortus)

Tropics, mostly Old World; 450 spp. Deciduous or evergreen trees or shrubs, sometimes climbing. Lvs. opp. or whorled, simple, toothed, lobed or entire. Fls. white, yellow, orange, red, blue or violet, in corymbs or cymes, the cymes sometimes in panicles, calyx 5-toothed or lobed, sometimes colored and showy, corolla funnelform or salverform, limb somewhat unequally 5-lobed, stamens 4, long-exserted, curved. Fruit a drupe, subtended or enclosed by persistent calyx. In Verbenaceae (Hortus Third 1976:285) Trop., subtrop.; 400 spp. The stamens project & form a landing place for insects; when they are ripe the style is bent down. Later the stamens roll up & are replaced by the style. In Verbenaceae (Willis 1973:261) Volkameria L. is Clerodendrum; Volkameria P. & K. and Volkameria Burm.f. are Capparis, Capparidaceae; Volkameria P.Br. is Clethra, Clethraceae. [I chose to put them here because all instances of Volkameria in GRIN are now in Clerodendrum or related Lamiaceae.] (Willis 1973:1216) E Hemisphere. Some medicinal, but name alludes to inconsistent reports of efficacy; from Greek: ‘chance tree’. Many cult. for ornament (Mabberley 1997:164) Clerodendron: These are, par excellence, plants of Malay magic, prob. starting with C. indicum which is still the chief magical sp. of N India. In Malaysia magical powers attributed not only to the spp. with pale fls. but to C. paniculatum which has red fls. The ‘first abode’ of Malay evil spirits was in the great ocean, pusat tasek: C. serratum is called tinjal tasek, etc. They lived on the sunken bank tebing runtoh: C. umbellata is called liruntoh. The pawang or magician uses plants whose name includes ‘pangil’ to summon the spirits: C. paniculatum is called pangil-pangil, C. kaempferi is sepanggil hutan, ‘forest summoner of spirits’. C. villosum is labu-labu, prob. ref. to a sorcerer’s charm. Other names for members of the genus include names used in sorcery. In Verbenaceae (Burkill 1966:Vol. 1 page 589) An amazing sp. found in the Moluccas, on the edge of a sago [Metroxylon, Palmae] swamp in sunny places. Flower spikes 15″ long, 3.5″ through; something like a delphinium [Delphinium, Ranunculaceae] but in various shades of deep Chinese pink (Fairchild 1943)


LAMIACEAE Clerodendrum aculeatum

Clerodendrum aculeatum (L.) Schlecht. LAMIACEAE

Synonyms: Clerodendron aculeatum Schlecht.

W Indies. Vine-like shrub to 10 ft., armed with paired spines. Lvs. oblong to obovate to 2″ long, entire. Cymes axillary, fls. white. Bloom summer, autumn (Hortus Third 1976:285) Corolla white, tube to 1.8 cm, lobes to 8 mm, filaments purple (Griffiths 1994:266) Mexico to the Guianas, W Indies. Shrub with smooth cylindrical branches that tend to climb; nodes bear short spiny old leaf-bases to 5 mm long. Lvs. opp. or whorled. Fls. white, tubular, to 2.5 cm long, oblong lobes 5 mm long, long-protruding stamens with purple filaments, clusters of 3-7 in leaf axils. Fruit black, round, 4-ribbed, cupped by the persistent calyx to 8 mm wide; 2 pairs of stones. Dry coastal regions. Intro. in Hawaii, W trop Africa. Puerto Rico, lvs. used in poultices. Barbados, crushed lvs. applied to eczema (Morton 1981:Vol. 2 page 737) Clerodendron a.: A much-branched shrub with small thorns, relatively small white or purple fls. Has been found v. useful for hedges in the W Indies; possibly of service in Malaya (Burkill 1966:Vol. 1 page 590) In St. Vincent Is. Fishlock 1919: used in cases of gonorrhea. In Brit. W.Indies Kings 1938: leaves boiled for cough (von Reis and Lipp 1982:250). Valid species; synonym not in GRIN (GRIN 2007)


LAMIACEAE Clerodendrum chinense

Clerodendrum chinense (Osb.) Mabb. LAMIACEAE

Synonyms: Clerodendron fragrans Willd., Clerodendrum fragrans Vent., Clerodendrum philippinum Schauer

Common names: Glory Bower (Griffiths) Honolulu Rose, Lady Nugent’s Rose (Mabberley) Fragrant Clerodendron (Kuck)

C. philippinum: China, Japan, nat. in E US and throughout tropics. Subshrub to 8 ft. Lvs. long-petioled, broadly ovate to 10″ long or more, truncate or cordate at base, coarsely toothed. Corymbs terminal, resembling the florist’s hydrangea [Hydrangea, Hydrangeaceae]. Fls. pink or white, 1″ across, fragrant, double; the single-fld. wild form is seldom seen (Hortus Third 1976:286) C. philippinum: Fls. in many-fld. terminal corymbs (Griffiths 1994:267) China to cent. Malaya. Extrafloral nectaries with ants building caves over them. In cult. fls. usually double. The wild plant is a serious weed in W Indies, Samoa (Mabberley 1997:164) Clerodendron f.: Flat tight clusters of small pinkish fls., each like a small rosebud, appear in spring. Each one is framed by a large 5-petaled rosy-purple calyx. At night the fls. have a distinct rather unpleasant scent (Kuck and Tongg 1958:102) Clerodendron f.: Brought into cult. in Eu. late 18th cent. A double-fld. race has already been selected in the East. In gardens in most parts of the tropics, run wild in India, Malaysia. Malays use it externally: a fomentation for rheumatism & ague. Also with other substs. for treating skin diseases. This may be the sp. used in ceremonies in Sumatra, called ‘sarang banuwa’, nest of a continent; the name must have orig. with a magician (Burkill 1966:Vol. 1 page 591) C. fragrans: A common ornamental plant in Cent. Am. gardens, survives neglect, blooms through the dry months. Often nat., forms dense thickets in damp ground or near dwellings (Flora of Guatemala 1970:192) Valid species & Clerodendrum synonyms; Clerodendron not in GRIN (GRIN 2007)


LAMIACEAE Clerodendrum colebrookianum

Clerodendrum colebrookianum Walp. LAMIACEAE

SE Asia. Shrub to 8 ft. or more. Lvs. long-petioled, cordate-ovate to 20″ long, entire. Fls. white to 1″ long, in corymbs. Fruit blue, subtended by fleshy red calyx (Hortus Third 1976:285) Erect shrubs, common in cleared forest areas of Nagaland, NE India. Aos use decoction of roots, lvs., bark for malarial fevers (Rao and Jamir 1982:178) In India Kingdon Ward 1949: Invariably covered with small ants (von Reis and Lipp 1982:251). Folk use as an anthelmintic (Jain 2000:462) Valid species (GRIN 2007)


LAMIACEAE Clerodendrum glabrum

Clerodendrum glabrum E.H.Mey. LAMIACEAE

Synonyms: Clerodendron glabrum E. Mey.

S Africa. Shrub or small tree to 15 ft. Lvs. opp. or whorled, oblong to 5″ long, entire, glossy above, glabrous or slightly hairy on veins beneath. Cymes dense, fls. white or pinkish, fragrant. Fruit white (Hortus Third 1976:285) Clerodendron g.: In S Africa leaf decoction as wound fly repellent (Secoy and Smith 1983:47) Tanganyika Tanner 1957: For reducing fever, leaves and twigs used as an infusion over which patient sits (von Reis and Lipp 1982:251). Valid species (GRIN 2007)


LAMIACEAE Clerodendrum hildebrandtii

Clerodendrum hildebrandtii . LAMIACEAE

Synonyms: Clerodendrum hilderbrandtii

C. hilderbrandtii: E African coast. Large shrub or small tree, white tubular fls. Swahili formerly made pipe stems from the smooth green branches with pith removed. The most common use was to make a pulp of the lvs. to bait the smaller fish traps. Though they appear to be effective, no obvious reason for choosing these particular lvs. Roots either pounded or boiled, used in herbal remedies, but with no specific curative powers (Weiss 1979:50) In Tanganyika Tanner 1956: For heartburn, roots boiled and the water drunk. Tanner 1957: For pain in the stomach, root boiled and the water drunk (von Reis and Lipp 1982:251). Name & synonym not in GRIN (GRIN 2007)


LAMIACEAE Clerodendrum indicum

Clerodendrum indicum (L.) O.Kuntze LAMIACEAE

Synonyms: Clerodendron indicum Kuntze

Common names: Tubeflower, Turk’s Turban (Hortus)

Malaysia. Shrub or woody herb to 8 ft. Lvs. mostly whorled, lanceolate to 6″ long, entire, glabrous. Cymes axillary or in panicles, fls. white, corolla tube to 4″ long. Fruit red or purple, subtended by red-brown calyx. Nat. in S US (Hortus Third 1976:285) Cymes in a terminal panicle to 45 cm, few-fld. Fruit dark blue (Griffiths 1994:267) Slender shrub with erect 4-sided stems, evergreen lvs. Whitish fls. with a fountain of stamens, flame-colored calyx at the bottom. Blue fruits are seated on waxy red calyces. Forms patches in part shade (Morton 1971:121). Clerodendron i.: India, Indochina, N Malaya, Java. Tall herb, planted in gardens in Java. No uses in Malaya. In Java a subst. for Indian hemp [Cannabis, Cannabaceae] & takes its names. Smoked, but Boorsma 1918 tried the dried lvs. in a tobacco pipe with no effect. In Java also smoked for asthma. In India the pounded root is given with ginger for asthma, other pulmonary complaints. Juice for skin complaints. Necklaces made of bits of the stem as charms. In the East the connection of this family with magic may have begun with this sp. No one can look upon that curious upright flowering plant reaching a man’s height, standing in the grass at the end of the rainy season, without realizing that there is something unusual about it. Now the chief magical sp. of N India (Burkill 1966:Vol. 1 page 592) Valid species, synonym not in GRIN (GRIN 2007)


LAMIACEAE Clerodendrum inerme

Clerodendrum inerme (L.) Gaertn. LAMIACEAE

Synonyms: Clerodendron inerme Benth.

India, China, Malaysia, Australia, Polynesia. Shrub erect or straggling, pubescent. Lvs. to 14 cm, oblong, entire, glandular. Cymes usually axillary, corolla pure white, tube to 3.5 cm, sometimes pale lilac, glabrous, lobes to 5 mm, stamens & style red. Fruit black (Griffiths 1994:267) Coasts, India to W Pacific. Widely intro. in the tropics as a sand-binder. In India for topiary. In Tonga used for cane-work (Mabberley 1997:164) Clerodendron i.: Bombay to the Pacific, coasts of Malaya. An untidy seashore shrub. Somewhat soft greenish-brown or black fruit. One of the names means ‘sorcerer’s flowers’. Malays apparently do not use it. Celibes through the Philippines to Guam use it medicinally. Rumpf said in his time the sailors of Macassar always took fruits & roots to sea with them. Seeds considered more useful. When someone had an upset stomach from eating poisonous fish, crabs, etc, took a decoction of the pounded seeds. Also lvs. eaten with rice, said to incr. the appetite. Fruits sent from Celibes to Java as a medicine for dysentery. Lvs. & roots for poulticing. Root as a febrifuge & general alterative. Lvs. for poultices. Lvs., wood, roots bitter, used for fever (Burkill 1966:Vol. 1 page 592) In S Africa, India, repellent for wound flies, bees, etc. (Secoy and Smith 1983:47) In the Mariana Is. Fosberg 1965: Boiled and water drunk for fevers. In Caroline Is. Fosberg 1965: Used as medicine and as fish poison (von Reis and Lipp 1982:251). Nicobarese of the Bay of Bengal pound lvs. with other lvs., tie on dislocated or fractured bones (Dagar 1989:220) Valid species, synonym not in GRIN (GRIN 2007)


LAMIACEAE Clerodendrum ligustrinum

Clerodendrum ligustrinum (Jacq.) R.Br. LAMIACEAE

Synonyms: Clerodendron ligustrina ., Volkameria ligustrina Jacq.

Common names: Izinté (Roys) Muste, Moste (Santamaría)

Mexico, Belize to Panama, 50-250 m. Scandent woody shrubs, large leaf scars. Lvs. elliptic to 10 cm long, acute, entire, densely punctate beneath. Infls. axillary, cymes lax, to 7 cm long, few-fld., bracts foliaceous, caducous, calyx to 9 mm, corolla white, tube to 1.2 cm long, lobes to 8 mm long, stamens long-exserted. Fruit 1 cm long, splitting into two 2-seeded halves at maturity. In Petén lvs. said to be used to flavor fish (Flora of Guatemala 1970:193) Tmps., Ver., Yuc., Tab., Pue., Oax. Shrub to 3 m high, petiole bases indurate & persistent. Cymes pedunculate, sometimes longer than lvs. Has been reported from Yuc. as C. aculeatum, but quite distinct (Standley 1924:1252) Pio Perez 1877, izinté is a plant with which the Indian women season posole, camote stew [Ipomoea, Convolvulaceae], etc. The Maya text prescribes the boiled lvs. as a wash for snake bites (Roys 1931) Clerodendron l.: V. abundant shrub in low lands of the eastern tierra caliente, on banks of marshy rivers. In Tab. lvs. are much used to wrap ‘mome’, a fish tamale, to which it gives an excellent flavor. Becerra gives an etymology from Maya [very strained!] (Santamaría 1978:Muste) In Tab. a fish tamale called ‘bostó’ is wrapped in momo [Piper, Piperaceae] or muste lvs., roasted in the coals (Santamaría 1978:Bostó) In Ver. they flavor shad and iguana with moste, and tortoise in burned moste. A popular saying: ‘Iguana in moste likes this person’, that is, ‘women like this person’ (Santamaría 1978:Moste) The terrapin was delicious, gelatinous and much more tender than sea turtle. It was cooked in a thin blackish sauce that had a musky flavor, and was colored by the burnt ground leaves of the moste bush that Don Victoriano had by his back door. He said it dated from Zapotec times (Kennedy 1972) Valid species & Volkameria l.; Clerodendron is not in GRIN (GRIN 2007)


LAMIACEAE Clerodendrum paniculatum

Clerodendrum paniculatum L. LAMIACEAE

Synonyms: Clerodendron paniculatum L.

Common names: Pagoda Flower (Hortus) Pangil-pangil (Burkill) Glory Bower, Magic Flower, Secreto de amor (Hargreaves)

SE Asia. Shrub to 4 ft. Lvs. orbicular to ovate, 5-lobed, to 6″ long, cordate. Cymes in terminal panicles, to 1 ft. long. Fls. scarlet, corolla tube to 0.5″ long (Hortus Third 1976:286) Clerodendron p.: N.Burma & S China to Java & Ternate; throughout Malaya. Shrub, 3 ft. tall, fls. orange red to crimson. Used as bedding plants. Name pangil-pangil means ‘summoner of spirits’. Sakai girls wear pieces in their hair & plant them near their camps; hard to tell where they are wild. Apparently the chief summoner of spirits in N Cent. Sumatra; also so used in Malaya. May be one of the plants composing the leafy brush for sprinkling consecrated rice-gruel in the wedding ceremony, in the blessing of fish stakes, and in the taking of the rice-soul. Malays drink an infusion as a purgative. Also apply it externally on distended stomachs. Used as a medicine to make elephants brave; prob. to protect them from harm & make them confident (Burkill 1966:Vol. 1 page 593) Sensational erect clusters of red fls. with long red stamens, throughout the summer (Morton 1971:120) The 4 small [?] stamens extend and seem to beckon, which acc. to Malaysians entices animals into a trap (Hargreaves and Hargreaves 1970:16) Valid species; synonym not in GRIN (GRIN 2007)


LAMIACEAE Clerodendrum [buchholzii]

Clerodendrum [buchholzii] . LAMIACEAE

Synonyms: Clerodendron buchholzii Gürke

Range not given. Clerodendron b.: An ornamental climber, often cult. Cameroons Mt. area, lvs. crushed, warmed, rubbed on the body for rheumatism. Also with others a remedy for snake bite. An infusion with pepper taken for a cold on the chest (Dalziel 1948:454) Name & synonym not in GRIN (GRIN 2007)


LAMIACEAE Clerodendrum [disparifolium]

Clerodendrum [disparifolium] . LAMIACEAE

Synonyms: Clerodendron disparifolium Blume

Clerodendron d.: W Malaysia. Small tree common in lowland forests. Lvs. used for constipation. Mixed with other lvs. in a tonic. Roots pounded, rubbed over the body for pains (e). Hollow tooth packed with the paste. Lvs. added to food for constipation; not really a vegetable. Timber too small to be of use. One of the woods used in Malacca for blackening the teeth. This is undoubtedly the seleguri whose lvs. enter into the besom for sprinkling consecrated rice gruel at weddings & rice ceremonies. Not used in ceremonies connected with a fish station (Burkill 1966:Vol. 1 page 591) Name not in GRIN (GRIN 2007)


LAMIACEAE Clerodendrum [umbratile]

Clerodendrum [umbratile] . LAMIACEAE

Synonyms: Clerodendron umbratile King & Gamble

Clerodendron u.: Sumatra, W Malaya. Small shrub. Malays use a decoction of the root for fever in childbirth. Boil the root, dry & powder it to make a powder for rubbing on the face in fever. Medicine for elephants. Possibly this sp.: astringent fruits used as flavoring with food (Burkill 1966:Vol. 1 page 594) Name & synonym not in GRIN (GRIN 2007)



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