Hordeum [genus] (5,751)
H. brevisubulatum (553)
H. bulbosum (1,153)
H. jubatum (2,508)
H. marinum (1,323)
Synonyms: Hordeum geniculatum All., Hordeum hystrix Roth
H. murinum (3,784)
Synonyms: Hordeum stebbinsii Covas
H. secalinum (222)
H. sphaerococcum (708)
H. vulgare (89,819)
Synonyms: Hordeum intermedium ., Hordeum spontaneum C.Koch
Hordeum [genus] L. POACEAE
Common names: Barley (Hortus)
Temp. N Hemisphere; 25 spp. Ann. or per. grasses. Leaf blades flat. Spikes dense, bristly, spikelets usually 1-fld., mostly 3 together at each joint of the articulate or continuous rachis, middle spikelet sessile and bisexual, lateral ones mostly unisexual, usually pedicelled, often reduced to awns, rachilla disarticulating above the glumes and prolonged behind the palea as a bristle in the central spikelet, glumes often subulate and awned, lemma tapering into a usually long awn (Hortus Third 1976: 568). Temp. N Hemisphere, S Am.; 20 spp. Lvs. linear, flat or rolled. Fls. in dense narrow, cylindric or flattened, spike-like panicles (Griffiths 1994: 577). Spikelets in 3s on axis forming dense spike; fls. of central or lateral spikelets often aborted (Mabberley 1998: 346) Has the C3 photosynthetic pathway, most grasses have C4 (Edwards & Walker 1983). Benson 1953: Arsenic is phytotoxic. Increasing levels of phosphorus decrease the toxicity of arsenic; presumably both minerals have the same uptake pathway (Brooks 1998) The people of Abu Hureyra, on the Euphrates in eastern Syria, 11,500 BP, successfully utilized a combination of wild annual rye, wild perennial rye, at least one of the wild einkorns [Triticum] and some wild emmer [Triticum], too. What they did not collect was wild barley, H. spontaneum [now H. vulgare subsp. spontaneum], probably because it did not grow in dense stands within easy reach of the site (Moore, Hillman and Legge 2000:335). By late spring people could have gathered a broad spectrum of small-seeded legumes and small-grained grasses, ripening sequentially across the terrain. The wall-barley and its relatives, the Hordeum murinum aggregate, grow widely but produced their densest stands in damp hollows in the driest areas of woodland-steppe with 200-300 mm rainfall a year. Lentils [Lens, Leguminosae] and large-seeded vetches [Vicia, Leguminosae] often grow together with wild barley. But they are unlikely to have been harvested together, because the legumes grow only a fraction of the height of the cereals and often ripen ahead of barley (Moore, Hillman and Legge 2000:336) Grains from small-grained grasses are prominent throughout the Abu Hureyra deposits of 11,500-11,000 BP. In this period we have no evidence of cultivation, so probably they were gathered as food. With the rich pickings available at Abu Hureyra, possibly they represented only secondary foods rather than primary staples. After cultivation began, during the Younger Dryas, 11,000-10,000 BP, most of the charred remains of these grasses probably came from weeds of early crops and were sieved out of the cereal grain during grain cleaning (Moore, Hillman and Legge 2000:358) At Mureybit, upstream on the Euphrates, a site dating from perhaps 10,500 BP, almost all the cereals and other food plants are of the wild type. However the seed assemblages of even the earliest levels are typical of cultivation. This suggests that the morphologically wild -type einkorns [Triticum], ryes [Secale], and barley were already under predomestication cultivation. The start of the cold dry Younger Dryas probably triggered the general adoption of cereal cultivation. However I propose that we should expect a few even earlier attempts at cultivation from c. 14,500 BP in favored locations in the eastern fringe of the Levant and in adjacent western areas of the northern Fertile Crescent (Moore, Hillman and Legge 2000:378) My personal view is that cereal and pulse cultivation at Abu Hureyra probably arrived fully fledged from elsewhere, possibly in stages. Our scanty evidence from Abu Hureyra suggests that domestic rye arrived first, followed by some pulses. Then the wheats and barleys were planted, followed later by chickpeas [Cicer, Leguminosae] and horsebean [Vicia, Leguminosae] (Moore, Hillman and Legge 2000:392) By 10,000 BP, morphologically wild -type cereal grains declined in abundance, and there was evidence for increasing amounts of cultivation. Beginning 9,400 BP, the cereal grains comprised more domesticates than wild types. Of the cereals identifiable with certainty, the most conspicuous were domestic einkorn and domestic barley. The wild -type cereals comprised both ryes and einkorns, as in the Epipalaeolithic (Moore, Hillman and Legge 2000:410) Additional domesticated crops were added about 9,400-8,300 BP, including domestic emmer [Triticum] and barley. About 8,300 BP there was a very rapid change from hunting gazelles to herding sheep and goats. The domesticates at this time included far fewer morphologically wild -type grains (Moore, Hillman and Legge 2000:418) G. N. Lisitsima 1987: At Maghzalia, in the headwaters of the Tigris R., 6,500-6,000 B.C. they had 2- and 6-rowed barley and several kinds of wheat. The domesticated cereals are small, early forms. Had sickles, reaping knives, milling stones, pestles (Maisels 1999: 128) Van Zeist 1979: Girikihaciyan in SE Turkey, headquarters of the Tigris, 5,000-4,500 B.C., uncalibrated radiocarbon dates. They had 2-row barley, and emmer and perhaps bread wheat. Excellent pottery, rain-fed agric., domesticated animals (Maisels 1999: 138) Kislev: Hans Helbaek 1953 processed early Neolithic plant material from Jarmo, Iraq. He said that barley & wheat were the first cereals to be cult. Kislev suggests that barley is the best candidate for the first cult. crop (Ninth International Congress of Ethnobiology: Ethnobiology, Social Change and Displacement 2004:A59)
POACEAE Hordeum brevisubulatum
Hordeum brevisubulatum (Trin.) Link POACEAE
Common names: Short-Awned Barley (Hortus)
SE Eu., Asia. Per., stems to 3 ft., clustered. Leaf blades scabrous above, spikes to 3.6″ long, dark or greenish-purple, rachis v. fragile and disarticulating at maturity, spikelets with lateral florets male, awns to 0.4″ long. Intro. for wet sites, but undesirable because of weedy character and awned spikelets (Hortus Third 1976: 568). Valid species (GRIN 2006)
POACEAE Hordeum jubatum
Hordeum jubatum L. POACEAE
Common names: Squirreltail Barley, Squirreltail Grass (Hortus) Fox-Tail Barley (Griffiths) Foxtail Grass, Wild Barley (Kingsbury) Maned Barley (Sturtevant)
N temp. regions. Per., tufted, to 2.5 ft. Lvs. scabrous to 5″ long, 0.2″ wide. Spikes to 4″ long, nodding, awns slender to 3″ long. Weedy, but sometimes grown for the abundant ornamental drooping spikes (Hortus Third 1976: 568). N Am., NE Asia. Ann. or per., stem smooth. Fls. in dense, finely bristly, silky, nodding spikes to 12 cm long 8 cm wide (Griffiths 1994: 577). Widely dist’d, locally common, bien. or per. N Canada & AK through US to VA, TX. One of the worst of the many plants which cause purely mechanical injury to animals. Serious loss of life in sheep, esp. in Rocky Mt. & N Plains states. Long slender wiry bristles extend from the flowering spike have reversely directed almost microscopic teeth. Once the bristle enters the flesh, the teeth prevent it from coming out, gradually works its way farther in. Injury in cattle & horses, but esp. dangerous to sheep. Most trouble from feeding hay containing large amts. of this grass, in mangers which force the sheep to put their muzzles in the mass of hay. Bristles easily penetrate delicate tissues inside the mouth, around the eyes, also through the skin elsewhere. Infection, then abcesses, necrosis, followed by sloughing of affected tissues. Death not uncommon when animals are blinded and unable to find feed, or when the oral tissues become too damaged. Also econ. loss from downgrading wool or pelts (Kingsbury 1964: 481). When young & tender eaten by stock, but when mature its rough beards are often injurious to them (Encyclopedia Americana. 1954: Grasses: Hordeum). Seashores & salt lakes of the New World. Seeds eaten esp. by Shoshones of S OR. In Brit. gardens since 1782 as an ornamental grass. The awned spikes are dangerous to cattle (Sturtevant 1972: 307). Tetraploid, 2n28; cult. barleys are diploid (Schery 1972: 435). In salt marshes of NE where salinity is up to 1.5%, this sp. dominates the marsh April-June. However it does not require salt, only tolerates it. Once it drops its seeds, marsh elder [? Umbelliferae] is dominant (Natural History 1998: 57). Valid species (GRIN 2006)
POACEAE Hordeum murinum
Hordeum murinum L. POACEAE
Common names: Wall Barley (Moore)
Range not given. Abu Hureyra is a site on the Euphrates, in eastern Syria. The most common small-grained grass in the charred remains from 11,500 BP are members of the wall-barley group. Gathering these grains probably involved a “lawn mower” approach to the harvest. Very large quantities of plants bearing edible grain can be harvested in minutes, ready for bulk processing. The presence of small amounts of other grass genera is thus fortuitous; they would not have been targeted deliberately (Moore, Hillman and Legge 2000:359) Figure 12.15: Dominique de Moulins harvesting a sward of small-seeded grasses dominated by wall-barley with a flint-bladed sickle north of El Kum in April 1988, using the lawn mower approach; Jane Reed harvesting a closely related form of wall-barley in Britain in 1990. In this case, we found it was quickest to harvest by uprooting, as the plants were tall and had many culms, and the soil was damp and friable (Moore, Hillman and Legge 2000:362) Of all the plant taxa identified from Epipalaeolithic Abu Hureyra, there are just three major groups that follow a pattern of changes that is different from everything else. Interestingly, these same three groups eventually became the dominant weeds of the driest zones of Southwest Asian rain -fed cereal cultivation. Their abrupt increase during 11,000-10,000 BP, probably therefore represents the advent of cultivation. The three groups of plants are the small -seeded legumes; small -seeded grasses, particularly the wall -barley grasses of the Hordeum murinum aggregate and their close relatives Eremopyron spp.; and the stony -seeded gromwells of the bugloss family [Boraginaceae] (Moore, Hillman and Legge 2000:384) Histograms showing frequency of recovery of all species suggest that small -seeded grasses and legumes were gathered as secondary foods during 11,500-11,000 BP. In 11,000-10,000 BP, the dramatic and synchronous increase of these seed remains reflects the start of some new form of soil disturbance. These groups are today characteristic weeds specifically of dryland, rainfed cultivation. Other weed complexes grow in either irrigation agriculture or cultivation of the valley bottom with high water table (Moore, Hillman and Legge 2000:386) Along the US Pacific Coast barbed beards penetrate the skin of young animals. A most pernicious pest (Encyclopedia Americana. 1954: Grasses: Hordeum). Valid species (GRIN 2006)
Hordeum murinum subsp. glaucum (Steud.) Tzvelev
Synonyms: Hordeum stebbinsii Covas
H. stebbinsii: Eu. Intro. into the SW US at an early date. Seeds eaten occasionally by the Cahuilla in CA when other foods were scarce (Bean & Saubel 1972). Valid taxon & synonym (GRIN 2006)
Hordeum murinum subsp. leporinum (Link) Arcang
Synonyms: Hordeum leporinum Link
Common names: Wall Barley, Barley Grass (Moore)
H. leporinum: Medit. Seeds 200 years old from adobe in SW N Am. found to be viable (Mabberley 1998: 346) H. leporinum: In eastern Syria, in the arid steppe with rainfall less than 200 mm, in wadi bottoms and other depressions, grasses grew so densely that the vegetation resembled lush hay meadows studded with scarlet poppies. Dominated by the barley-grasses, Hordeum leporinum and its allies, here growing knee-high (Moore, Hillman and Legge 2000:67) Valid taxon & synonym (GRIN 2006)
POACEAE Hordeum vulgare
Hordeum vulgare L. POACEAE
Common names: Barley, Common Barley, Nepal Barley (Hortus) Bere (Hortus) Six-rowed Barley, Four-rowed Barley (Willis) Bigg, Big, Orge (Britannica) Mugi (Haiku) Six-Lined Barley, Winter Barley, Nepal Barley (Sturtevant) Sha’ir (Dalziel) Tsampa (Tannahill) Tsamba (Ekvall) Orgeat (OED) Gofio (Fairchild)
Temp. Old World. Ann., stems to 4 ft., erect. Leaf blades flat, to 0.6″ wide. Spike erect to 4″ long excluding awns, spikelets 3, sessile, glumes awned, awn of lemma straight, erect, to 6″ long. Fruit 0.4″ long, short-pointed, furrowed the length of the face, smooth, sometimes quite free of the lemma and palea. Now widely cult. for the grain, sometimes escaped but not persistent. The hardiest of the cereal crops, of great antiquity. Grown for food and as a source of malt. Two main groups of barley cvs. The most commonly grown, for malt, are the 2-rowed barleys, with sterile lateral spikelets so only two rows of spikelets develop; these are probably from H. spontaneum. The 6-rowed barleys include the 4-rowed ‘bere’ which is the hardiest of cult. barleys; they have higher protein content and are mainly used for food (Hortus Third 1976: 568). This grain ranks next to wheat [Triticum] in both agric. & commercial value. Used as a bread-corn only in parts of the lowlands of Scotland, where unleavened cakes or ‘bannocks o’ barley meal’ are still the daily bread of the peasantry. More largely used in preparing ‘barley broth’, so much relished by all classes in Scotland. A peculiar kind of mill to prepare it for broth was orig. brought from Holland by Fletcher of Saltoun. However the chief uses of barley are in prod. of malt liquor and in fattening of livestock. It would be better if this grain were more largely used in the form of butcher-meat and greatly less in that of beer or whiskey. Many vars., some known by diff. names in diff. districts. Chevalier, the finest & heaviest grain, is 54-56 lbs./ bushel; less liable to lodge than common barley, and does not prod. aftershoots or greens if it does lodge. Requires longer to reach maturity, but also can be sown earlier. Common barley when early is generally sown after the latest crops of turnips [Brassica, Cruciferae]. Plow up the land in successive portions as the sheep-fold is shifted. On good soil might sow as early as March or even Feb. This early sowing counteracts the tendency to over-luxuriance by which the crop is so often ruined in fertile soils. Average of 36 bu./ acre. Sow 2.4 bu./ acre broadcast, 2 bu./ acre when drilled; sow more when planted late to prevent excessive tillering, which gives unequal and later ripening. A good crop gives 1 ton each of grain & straw per acre (Encyclopaedia Britannica 1893: Agriculture: Barley). The most hardy of cereal grains: grows farther N than any other, and can be profitably cult. in subtropical countries. Pliny considers it the most ancient food of mankind. 3 vars. have been found in Swiss Lake Dwellings of the Stone Age: H. distichum, H. hexastichum densum, and H. hexastichum sanctum. The last is the most ancient and the most commonly found. Barley ears were figured plaited in the hair of Ceres and on ancient coins. Cult. in ancient Egypt acc. to Ex. ix 31. Until recent times an important food in N Eu., barley cakes still eaten to some extent. Poor in gluten, so flour cannot be baked into raised bread. However highly nutritious, rich in phosphoric acid. Greeks trained their athletes on it. Now chiefly cult. for malting, to prepare spirits and beer. Also much used in domestic cooking. With the outer cuticle ground off called pot barley: hard, somewhat flinty. If further ground into small round pellets, called pearl barley. Patent barley is either pot or pearl barley reduced to flour. Decoctum hordei, a prep. listed in the Brit. Pharm., used as a demulcent and emollient drink in febrile and inflammatory disorders. Barley imported into the U.K. in 1873: 9 million cwts., a third from Turkey, a quarter from France, and an eighth each from Germany, Russia (Encyclopaedia Britannica 1893: Barley). Barley grows in West Finnmark as far N as 70º; oats [Avena] & rye [Secale] about the same; wheat [Triticum,] & maize [Zea] only to 58º in Eu. Barley is part of the usual crop in all countries of Eu. (Encyclopaedia Britannica 1893: Europe: Cereal). Wheat is the only significant grain for baking. Scones of barley-flour, sweet & tough, are now mostly made of wheat (Encyclopaedia Britannica 1893: Baking: Other grains). Malt dust is an active manure frequently used as top-dressing on potted fruit-trees. It acts rapidly but the effects are not permanent (Encyclopaedia Britannica 1893: Horticulture, Manures). In the time of Henry VII a laborer could earn a quarter of barley in 9 days. Then the Corn Laws were passed. At the end of Elizabeth’s reign he needed 29 days (Encyclopaedia Britannica 1893: Corn Laws). The Hessian fly, Cecidomyia destructor, the May brood prod. swellings above the joints of barley (Encyclopaedia Britannica 1893: Galls: Cereals). The weight system in Egypt is based on grain: 64 kamhahs or grains of wheat, or 48 habbehs or grains of barley, equal 1 dirhem, 48 gr. Troy. 24 keerats equals 1 mithkal or weight of a deenar, 72 gr. (Encyclopaedia Britannica 1893: Egypt: Weight System). Barley has an even wider range of ecol. tolerance than rye [Secale]. Tended to assume huge importance as a staple food wherever conditions are too hostile for other grains. Makes poor bread; usually eaten unground in soups or stews, or made into an infusion for invalids, or left as fodder. More imp. than wheat in most peoples’ diets in ancient Mesopotamia. The orig. staple of ancient Greece. Not much else would grow in the thin rocky soils, and some of the earliest Athenian coins were stamped with images of barley sheaves. Wheat was the main food of classical civilization, but it was largely imported from Egypt, N Africa & Sicily. In the 5th cent. A.D. an agric. revolution based on barley transformed Tibet. This icy, soda-encrusted table-land was once good only for nomads. Once barley became available in large amts, the cold protected stored food. The land became a breeding ground of armies, which could march on far campaigns with ten thousand sheep & horses in their supply trains. Now Tibet’s history has gone into reverse, and the former empire became a land of civil wars, then a victim of external aggression. Even though other grains are now available, barley is still favored, consumed in hand-rolled balls of the toasted barley flour called tsampa, or fermented in beer (Fernandez-Armesto 2002: 89) In the 11th cent., Gregory, Bishop of Langres, did penance by eating barley bread. In France until the last generation, to eat ‘pan de seigle’ was to lose caste (Fernandez-Armesto 2002: 126) In England: three or sometimes four barleycorns made an inch, and five poppy seeds [Papaver, Papaveraceae] a barley corn (Gould 1993: 138). A yield of 61.17 cwt/ acre of var. Ymer reported by J.W.Symons in Wisbech, Cambridgeshire in 1955 from a field of over 2 acres. (Guinness) The greatest yield of barley was 82.6 cwt./acre of var. Clermont Spring, from a 13.5 acre field, in Cumbria England in 1972. (Guinness 1980) One of the first of the grasses to be cult. Earliest settlers brought it to Eu. Until a few hundred years ago was the chief bread grain in Eu., now supplanted by wheat, rye. Short growing period, adapted to N lat., high alt. Grown N of Arctic Circle, at the equator at 10,000 ft., in trop. countries in winter. Chief produces: US, USSR, China, India. Little grown in the S Hemisphere (Encyclopedia Americana. 1954: Barley). Barn is from Anglo-Saxon bere, barley, ein or aern, a close place (Encyclopedia Americana. 1954: Barn) Malt extract is a flavoring made from germinated barley (Encyclopedia Americana. 1954: Plant Medicines: Malt Extract). H. distichon: The common barley of cult., many vars. Found wild between Lenkoram and Baku in SE Caucasus, in S Persia near the confluence of the Samara & Volga Rs. Pickering 1879 says it was cult. at the time of the invention of writing. Standing crops pictured in the 5th Dynasty of Egypt, about 2440 BC. Mentioned among the things destroyed in the plagues of Egypt. Egyptians said barley was the first of the cereals used by man, intro. by the goddess Isis. Sacred grain of the Greeks, exclusively used in sacrifices and at the ann. festival at Eleusis in honor of agric. Pliny calls it the most ancient cereal, but acc. to Suetonius was considered an ignominious food by the Romans. Long the grain most cult. in England, appears on coins of the early Britons, used for bread & for beer. Herodotus 450 BC describes beer made from barley among Egyptian beverages, Xenophon 400 BC saw it in Armenia. Planted in Martha’s Vinyard 1602. Can grow to 70º N in Finland, 68º N in Siberia. Has been grown in small patches in Ft. Yukon, Alaska (Sturtevant 1972: 306). Heavy adventitious root system, fewer tillers than wheat, 5-8 nodes usually. Tough flattened rachis does not disarticulate, florets usually self-fertilized. Aleurone layers pigmented, mature grain usually highly colored. The nitrogenous soils of the W Plains prod. a ‘flintier’ barley, higher in protein. Unlike wheat, this barley is less valuable than the ‘softer’ starchy barley of the East. Soft barley gives better yield and malt. 13% protein, 2% fat, 5% fiber, 76% carbohydrate. Versatile cereal: high alt., cold weather, short season eg. with summer drought; but can’t take hot humid weather. China 2800 BC, ancient Egypt, staple in S Eu. from ancient times until supplanted by wheat, and in Christian times by rye. Presumably first grown in the Near East, perhaps Abyssinia or Tibet; wild barleys H. spontaneum & H. maritimum still found there. Usually a special-purpose grain, for animal feed & malt rather than marketed directly. May be eaten like rice, esp. in the Far East. Both spring & winter cvs., spring barley may be planted farther N than any other cereal. US grows mostly spring barley. Yields a ton/acre in US, in Denmark double this. Mainly for animal feed, a subst. for maize where summers are cool & dry. Nearly as efficient a feed as maize. 30% of crop germinated for malt. Mostly for brewing, also breakfast foods, malt syrups, confections, etc. Only whole grains will germinate, handling care affects the price. 3% of US crop for pearl barley, used mostly for soups. More used in N Eu. & Asia than in US as human food; also flour for babies, invalids. Used for bread before wheat flour became common. 120 million tons/year, 9 million in US. Mostly USSR, China, also US, N Eu., Turkey, India, Morocco. In the Medit. area, China, Japan, India, mostly winter barley. In US winter barley in SE States for autumn & spring pasture and a cover crop. Spring barley in Dakotas, CA, MT, MN. H. vulgare is a 6-row type with all lemmas awned, the usual comm. sp. 2n14. Prob. from H. spontaneum, which crosses readily with it (Schery 1972: 434). One of the first cereals domesticated. Archeol. digs in Syria & Iraq have domesticated barley kernels ca. 10,000 years old. Wild forms all 2-rowed, and the oldest indisputably cult. forms also 2-rowed. All spp. have clusters of 3 spikelets on either side of the infl. Orig. only one of the 3 had a fertile floret, so two kernels per node, forming a 2-rowed fruit stalk. Human sel. resulted in spikelets all fertile and a 6-rowed stalk; a single gene controls this. Appeared by 6,000 B.C. Grain on the staff of Demeter, Greek goddess of agric., was barley, not wheat. By Egyptian times, barley was so important that it had its own hieroglyphic symbol. Greeks made pastes, baked barley breads with various flavors. Also learned to soak the grains in water before drying and grinding to make them more digestible; fore-runner of malting. Baking & beer-making became part of the same operation. The king of cereals until 4 millennia ago, when it was supplanted by tetraploid wheats. Modern sel. toward synchronous tiller prod., short stems, tolerance to cold & saline soils, higher protein content in feed cvs., uniform endosperm composition in malting cvs. (Simpson & Ogorzaly 2001: 115). In 1999, Germany prod. 13 million metric tons, Russian Federation 11 million, Canada 13 million, France 9 million, UK 7 million; world prod. 134 million (Simpson & Ogorzaly 2001: 110). Does not have enough gluten for good bread, but the heavy bread kept for a long time. Barley water prescribed by Hippocrates, pearl or hulled barley in soups, garnish for stews. Barley sugar as candy (Montaigné 1961). Barley & oats nearly as useful worldwide as rice; the millets and sorghums are far less important except locally. In 1955, 62 million tons grown worldwide, in 1965 90 million, mostly consumed rather than exported. Cult. principally in W Eu., E Eu. and N Am., also Near East & Africa. (FAO) In colonial Chile, wheat and barley were grown on a large scale for export to Peru. [Ruiz does not mention rye [Secale] or oats [Avena] in either Chile or Peru] (Ruiz 1998 (1777–1788):242). In Chile the people used ground maize to make a very popular drink called ullpu, which is much like the Mexican atole. If maize was unavailable, they sometimes made ullpu with wheat or barley meal (Ruiz 1998 (1777–1788):243). The fungus Gibberella saubinetii is toxic to certain spp. of animals. When infected by it, grain heads become yellow then brown, eventually reddish mold growth on the surface, sometimes with small black perithecia on the kernels. Barley then called scabby. A long wet period at the time of flowering results in up to 80% scabby kernels, one such year was 1928. Barley exported to Germany, Belgium, Netherlands, complaints against barley grown in the Midwest; now a law that Am. barley must be tested for toxicity. Extensive feeding expts. in Germany, US, etc. Barley with more than 5% infected kernels refused by hogs unless starving. If they eat even small amts., intoxication, vomiting. 30-45 min. of wandering aimlessly, vomiting 6-8 times over the next hour, then complete recovery. Water extract of the toxic principle given by stomach tube caused death in a few instances; 0.03% caused vomiting. Scabby barley & oats refused by horses, mules. Rats could be sickened & even killed by scabby barley. Guinea pigs lost weight with either scabby or non-scabby barley. Cattle & other ruminants appear immune to the toxin, eat up to 56% of their rations with no refusal. Poultry find it distasteful in large amts., refuse it with weight loss. Barley parasitized with other fungi not toxic (Kingsbury 1964: 482). Claviceps purpurea (Fr.) Tul is the ergot of rye, which also attacks barley. Kingsbury does not list any deaths of livestock from barley ergot. See Secale for details (Kingsbury 1964: 80) Toxic conc. of nitrates have been measured in the hay (Kingsbury 1964: 43). An archeol. sample from the Nimrud site, 13th cent. BC, remains of a cooked meal: mainly hulled barley, with raisins, green vegetables. In Nimrud 7th cent. BC: all barley had the inner husk or palea still attached. Had both 6-row and 2-row vars., mostly 2-row. Many weed seeds [list of weeds], so barley growth not v. dense; occasional wheat & lentil plants in the field. At Fort Shalmaneser 612 AD, remains were mostly wheat with some barley, instead of the reverse (Mallowan 1966). Little rain falls in Assyria, enough, however, to make the corn begin to sprout, after which the plant is nourished and the ears formed by means of irrigation from the river. Of all the countries that we know, there is none which is so fruitful in grain; it yields commonly two-hundred fold and even three-hundred fold. The blade of the wheat and barley plants is often four fingers in breadth (Herodotus 1942: Book 1 #193). Sown in Palestine Oct.-Nov., harvested about Passover. A second sowing in early spring. Barley bread was a staple food of the Hebrews, has been cult. for man & beast from remote antiquity, universally grown today. Less protein than wheat or rye, a symbol of poverty in the household. 2 kinds, one with 6 rows of grain, one with 2. Solomon’s temple were given 20,000 measures of barley as a food ration. Ex. 9:24-31, John 7:8-10, Deut. 8:8 (Walker 1957). The main crops in the upper Euphrates valley were wheat, barley, sorghum and legumes, a traditional crop base that had its beginnings in the Neolithic. Since the 1950s, these were largely replaced by cotton [Gossypium, Malvaceae], grown with official encouragement as a cash crop for export. Villagers still grow the traditional crops on a much smaller scale. After the harvest in May & June, the fields of wheat & barley stubble on the floodplain were opened up for grazing (Moore, Hillman and Legge 2000:30). In 1972 the Euphrates Valley near Raqqa had kilometers of back-swamps, supporting large pop’ns of sea club-rush [Scirpus, Cyperaceae]. By 1983 the swamps had been extensively drained and the salty soil was sown with barley, which was instantly infested with equal numbers of club-rush plants (Moore, Hillman and Legge 2000:71). Crops in ancient Egypt incl. barley, emmer wheat [Triticum] and flax [Linum, Linaceae]; cotton [Gossypium, Malvaceae] came much later. Barley called ‘iot’ (Maisels 1999: 37) Hayes 1984 calibrated the date at El Khathara as 3715, but prob. this is too early. Had domesticated animals, domesticated emmer & barley as well as other grasses (Maisels 1999: 46) Hierankopolis or Nekhen, late Amratian/ Gerzean period, ca. 3700-3100 BC. Had cult. barley & emmer wheat [Triticum dicoccon], domestic goats & pigs, cult. peas [Pisum, Leguminosae] & bitter vetch [Vicia, Leguminosae]. But fishing was still the mainstay, a little hunting, much gathering (Maisels 1999: 49) Maadi, just S of the Delta, ca. 3650 BC. Specialization, prob. for trade with Palestine & Syria, and with Sumeria. Esp. pottery, also copper, stone tools, stone vases. Caneva et al 1987: einkorn [T. monococcum], emmer [T. dicoccum], and bread wheat [T. aestivum], cult. barley; lentils [Lens, Leguminosae], peas; sheep, goats, cattle, pigs, dogs, and the earliest domesticated donkeys in Africa (Maisels 1999: 53) At Ras Shamra, N coast of the Levant near Aleppo [Syria]: emmer & 2-rowed barley planted early; lentils & other pulses were grown as widely as grains. In the Halef levels the proportion of pulses fell to a v. low level, Halef ends here ca. 4300 B.C. However survival of grains much higher than of pulses in archeol. sites (Maisels 1999: 106) In ancient Mesopotamia, at Samarra in the mid-Tigris, c 5500-4,000 B.C., eventually in Sumer. Main crop was 6-row hulled barley, under irrigation. Grew einkorn wheat, date palms [Phoenix, Palmae], possibly flax, cattle & pigs. Sheep & goats unsuited to the wet conditions (Maisels 1999: 152) Mehrgarh, a site of ancient India, the only site investigated N of Mohenjo-Daro on the Indus. By late 6th millennium, Neolithic Preceramic, had 2-row hulled ‘pearl’ barley, and 6-row hulled and naked cvs. of H. vulgare plus several wheat spp. (Maisels 1999: 195). Wheat and barley in India were rabi crops, sown in winter without plowing after the flood-water went down, and harvested March-April. Kharif or autumn crops incl. sesame & cotton, planted at the beginning of the inundation, harvested at its close in autumn. Kharif crops were rare until the 2nd millennium (Maisels 1999: 206). In the Punjab 1889, plant barley in early rabi when the Indus is subsiding, mid-Oct. to mid-Dec. Harvest in early kharif when the water is low, mid-March to mid-April (Maisels 1999: 213) Mills 1992 suggested that in Egypt, the predynastic grain storage practices encouraged growth of Streptomyces. Thus people ate continuous low-level doses of the antibiotic tetracycline. May have protected against disease [?] (Maisels 1999: 372) Harlan 1992: on the basis of his expt. work, harvesting wild grains does not cause domestication. Only planting gives positive sel. pressure for non-shattering, synchronous ripening, loss of dormancy, and larger seed size. Because of self-pollination, as few as 3 generations of planting/ harvesting can result in genes for non-shattering and for the fertility of the lateral florets to predominate. Zohary 1992: such features are controlled by only 1-2 genes. The 2-rowed wild form has sterile lateral spikelets, domestic barley became 6-rowed. Formerly archeol. thought that domesticated barley was char. by single internodes with a fragment of the upper internode still attached to the connecting node. However Kislev 1992 & Zohary 1992: when barley remnants with attached fragmented internodes are recovered in a Pre-Pottery Neolithic site in small percentages, they belong to ‘wild’ barley. When ca. 10% of a group of grains is of this form, the whole harvest is ‘wild’. This was later checked experimentally at Jales. When harvested barley was left to dry for 24 hours, the broken internode fragments fell to only 2-3% of the sample. Thus Zohary 1992 and Hillman & Davis 1992 still maintain that two-row barley was being cult. at Netiv Hagdud, Gilgal 1 and Jericho (Maisels 1999: 374) In Sumerian myth: Enki trained the plow, the yoke and the team, furnished them with oxen, and called the rain, the waters above. He turns the hillock into fields where emmer grows. Enki stocks the holy furrows with gunu-barley, estub-barley, innuha-barley, and multiplied the heaps and piles of grain. (Kramer & Maier 1989: p. 50) Medieval England: most barley was reserved for malt used in brewing, but an inferior barley, often combined with oats, was called drege, and made into a heavy bread (Hanawalt 1986: 55). After the famine of 793 pushed prices up, Charlemagne declared at the Council of Frankfurt: No man, lay or ecclesiastical, shall ever, in times of plenty or dearth, sell grain more dearly than the publicly defined price of a hogshead. A hogshead of oats shall be 1 denier, a hogshead of barley 2 deniers, a hogshead of rye, 3 deniers, a hogshead of wheat, 4 deniers. If he wishes to sell it in loaves, 12 wheat loaves of 2 pounds each should be 1 denier, 15 of rye in the same weight, 1 denier, 20 barley loaves and 24 of oats for the same sum. The king himself set the example, prescribing that the grain furnished by his own fiscs was to be sold at lower prices: 2 hogsheads of oats for 1 denier, 1 of barley for 1 denier, 1 of rye for 2 deniers, and 1 of wheat, 3 deniers. In 805 he again fixed food prices, and forbade the sale of grain outside the Empire. In 806 he revised this: 2 deniers for a hogshead of oats, 3 for spelt mixtures, 4 for rye and 6 for a hogshead of sifted wheat. He also specified that the same hogshead must be applied to all, so everyone used equal measures. Capacity was mostly measured in hogsheads, modius, whose contents varied from 20 to 70 liters, depending on time & place. The denier was the only coin actually struck; it was made by hand in mints controlled by the king, in theory (Riché 1978: 120). In France, bread of barley, oats or millet was always ranked as coarse food; the poor used it in years of want. Monks who committed a serious offense against discipline were condemned to live on it for a certain period. (Lacroix) The Breton ascetics ate only barley bread, and that mixed with ashes; also bowls of gruel and vegetables, denying themselves even fish and shellfish. On Saturdays and Sundays, they accepted a little cheese thinned with water (Riché 1978: 171). Canary Is.: the first Eu. expeditions reported that the natives ate their grain like birds, or else made it into flour and ate it with water without kneading. The still eat ‘gofio’. We are so accustomed to the idea of first grinding our cereals and then cooking them, that the reverse way of doing so seems strange. The Gauchos first parched their wheat or barley or broad beans [Faba, Leguminosae] over the fire until brittle, then ground them. This parched meal has a toasted flavor, and is perfectly digestible when dry. Also mixed with water: v. palatable and had a flavor somewhat resembling popcorn (Fairchild 1930). Tsampa is toasted barley flour used today in Tibet. Drink the thick black Tibet tea with salt & yak butter. Leave a little at the bottom of your bowl, add a big dollop of tsampa, stir it in, then knead with the hand till it becomes a large dumpling-like object. Eat it with more tea. Need practice to get the proportions right. An incidental advantage, your hands are clean when done (Tannahill 1973). Tsamba is the staple cereal, almost the only cereal in the Tibetan diet. Barley is threshed, washed, put in boiling water for 5 minutes, strained and stored in a warm place. After 24 hours, the grains are pan-fried or roasted, or mixed with hot sand in a skin bag which is rolled on the ground to loosen the husk. Grain is spread in a windy place to winnow it, then ground to flour. Never eat it dry. Often taken in buttered tea. Sometimes add chura, a powdered dry cheese; this is cut in squares, strung on yak hair strings, and kept for years. The poorer classes may occasionally make tsamba from common peas [Pisum, Leguminosae]. Tibetans grow two main types of barley. Soa or sa-wa with thick husk, mainly for cattle fodder. Ne is beardless, naked, said to be grown at elevations up to 14,500 ft. 3 vars. of ne: yangma or tukchu-ne, ripens in 2 months; chhe-ne, in 3 months; sermo, the best quality, in 4 months. In Ui and Tsang provinces, sow barley in April-May, reap in Sept.-Oct. Needs the rains in July-Aug., and no frost before it matures. Until the Chinese invasion 1955, Tibetans maintained large granaries, which were opened when frost came early. In the cold dry climate, grain can be stored for years. In Sikkim & Bhutan, barley is grown Oct.-April, and they make their beer from Eleusine millet (Wilkes 1968: 347) 1680, Morden: All Measures are either Applicative or Receptive. The smallest Applicative Measure is a Barley corn (Oxford English Dictionary. 1971: Applicative) Orgeat, a syrup or cooling drink made orig. from barley, later from almonds [Prunus, Rosaceae] & orange-flower water [Citrus, Rutaceae]; earliest quote 1754 (Oxford English Dictionary. 1971: Orgeat). 1851, a barley avaller, for rubbing the horns or avels [awns] off barley (Oxford English Dictionary. 1971: Horns). ‘Ezle’ in c1000 or ‘ylas’, 1398, early forms of ‘awn’. 1787 Winter, Syst.Husb.: Barley should likewise be well shook in a sack by two men, to be cleared from ailes (awns) (Oxford English Dictionary. 1971: Ail; Oxford English Dictionary. 1971: Ail). Barley is an ingredient in a soup that may help people with Alzheimer’s (Duke 1997:39). High in silicon, which improves resilience of cartilage and tendons. A tea may help people with bursitis and tendonitis. Also rest the joint, use an ice-pack (Duke 1997:107) Juice this or other grasses and drink for chronic fatigue syndrome (Duke 1997:133) Contains biotin, may be useful for preventing and treating dandruff (Duke 1997:154). Barley contains up to three times more beta-glucans than oats, though oat bran gets all the publicity. Beta-glucans lower cholesterol (Duke 1997:257). And lower cholesterol reduces the risk of heart attacks. Make a vegetable soup that includes barley (Duke 1997:243). Barley contains catechins, which help relieve nausea (Duke 1997:338). Barley sugar was prepared by boiling down ordinary sugar in a decoction of pearl-barley. Now made with saffron [Crocus, Iridaceae], oil of citron, orange or lemon [Citrus, Rutaceae] (Brewer 1978: Barley-Sugar). Jaggery sugar from sap of the Lontar palm [Borassus] was sweeter than barley sugar made from malted barley (Fairchild 1943). Odyssey: fed horses on spelt [Triticum] mixed with white barley. Telemachus would not take horses to Ithica because there was no meadow-land at all, it was land only fit for goats; in Sparta were wide plains with spear-reed and wheat and rye, and ‘white and spreading barley’. (Odyssey Bk IV) Hecatomb was an ancient Greek animal sacrifice; name means 100 cattle. The victim, altar and people were sprinkled with barley and water, the animal’s throat was cut on the altar. Entrails were examined for omens, the flesh roasted & eaten by the people, and the thigh bones were burned to the music of sacred hymns (World Book Encyclopedia. 1965: Hecatomb). Wheat & barley fields in Morocco were damaged or destroyed by Spanish field sparrows 1970. (CSLP) Subsp. spontaneum had brittle rachis, husked grains. First harvested c. 9,000 BC, giving rise to 2-rowed subsp. distichon (L.) Koern, which had non-brittle rachis. This mutated to subsp. vulgare, a 6-rowed barley, or 4-rowed with central spikelet sterile, called ‘big’ in Scotland, or ‘bere’ from bear. A single recessive gene gave 6-rowed ears from 2-rowed. 2n 14. Predominantly selfed. Hardiest forms cult. to 70º N in Norway, and somewhat tolerant of saline soils. Cereal grown by ancient Egyptians, found in Swiss lake-dwellings. Malted and used as a substrate for yeasts in beer. First successfully bottled c 1736. In Gt. Britain 1985, £8347 m spent on beer, £4051 m on bread. In 1988, 29 m pints per day drunk in Gt. Britain, or 1081 pints per head per annum, 10 times wine consumption. Also for whiskey, first recorded as distilled 1494 by a friar, now 4 m bottles a day made in Scotland. In old Britain used cv. ‘Maris Otter’ for beer, now replaced by bigger-yielding but lesser-tasting cvs. Make whiskey using cv. ‘Golden Promise’. Malt extract used in proprietary spreads, medicine, etc. Pearl barley used in soups & stews is grain worn to a spherical shape, barley water is a watery sol’n used as a soft drink & in medicine (Mabberley 1998: 346) Barley was grown by the Yuma Indians of the Colorado R. in 1775, reported grown by Cahuilla in the Coachella Valley 1853 (Bean & Saubel 1972). V. small amts. of barley grown by Tarahumar since 1777 (Pennington 1963). Small amts. of barley grown for animal feed in the Tarascan Sierra. Sown in June, harvested in Nov. More tolerant of poor soils & frost than maize or wheat, so grown mainly on upper slopes (West 1948). Valid species (GRIN 2006)
Common names: Ale, Beer, Porter, Zythium, Celia, Ceria, Cerevisia, Zythos, Koirmi, Kvass, Quass (Britannica) Stout, Chang (Schery) Zythus, Corma, Godale (Lacroix) Haq (Tannahill) Hek, Carmi (Emboden)
1870 in Britain: 2.6 million acres under barley. Chiefly grown in Suffolk, Norfolk, parts of Essex & Herts. At 32 bu./ acre, yield was 83 million bushels. 50 million bushels made into malt, 4 million of this used by distillers. For beer, cold clay soils do not prod. the best malting barley, a wet season is fatal to it. In full ear, rain or even heavy dew breaks the stalk. If wet continues 2-3 days, the grains on the ground begin to grow and get stained, quite unfit for malting. Should remain in the stack at least a month to season, but if damp it may generate excessive heat which destroys the growing power of the grain. Good barley should have a thin, clean, wrinkled husk, closely adhering to a plump well-fed kernel. When broken the kernel has a white, sweet, full germ of a pale yellow color. The cereal best adapted to malting: contains more starch and far less gluten than other grains, and about 7% grape sugar. A bushel of barley weighs 53-58 lbs., bere or bigg weighs 47-51 lbs. Husk nearly a sixth the grain, a quarter to a fifth in bigg. 72% starch, 10% water, 7% fibrous matter, 6% sugar, 5% mucilage, 4% gluten. [details on buying barley, various kinds of malt, etc.] (Encyclopaedia Britannica 1893: Brewing: Barley) The steps to make beer: crush the grain, don’t grind to flour. Mash, not over 152º, allows diastase to act. Sparge, wash out the rest of the goodness. Boil at once after mashing and adding hops [Humulus, Cannabidaceae]. Cool to 60º; at 66º it doesn’t keep; for strong ales cool to 58º. Ferment by adding yeast or barm. Cleanse, skim off the yeast, several methods. Rack and store it, add more hops to preserve the beer. A quarter of malt is 4 barrels. For strong stored ales, 10-13 lbs. hops/ quarter; for ordinary beers drunk within 2 months, 6-9 lbs. hops/ quarter. India pale ale, bitter beer, 18-25 lbs. hops/quarter. The ranker Bavarian & American hops are not so freely used as delicate English-grown hops (Encyclopaedia Britannica 1893: Brewing: Making the Beer) Ale is a fermented liquor obtained from an infusion of malt. Differs from beer chiefly in having a less prop. of hops. Hops were intro. from Flanders ca. 1524. Ale said to have been made orig. in Egypt. Pliny: All the peoples in the W of Eu. have a liquor they make of corn and water, with which they intoxicate themselves. The manner of making this liquor may be diff. in Gaul, Spain and other countries, and is called by many names, but its nature and props. are everywhere the same. The people of Spain brew the liquor so well that it will keep good a long time. Isodorus & Orosius give the method the Celts use: The grain is steeped in water and made to germinate, by which its spirits are excited and set at liberty; it is then dried and ground, after which it is infused in a certain quantity of water and fermented, and becomes a pleasant, warming, strengthening, and intoxicating liquor. Commonly made from barley, sometimes from wheat [Triticum], oats [Avena], millet [Panicum etc.]. Anglo-Saxons and Danes believed that drinking ale was one of the chief pleasures of the heroes in the halls of Odin. Ancient Welsh & Scots had ale only as a luxury for the wealthy (Encyclopaedia Britannica 1893: Ale) H. distichon [H. vulgare var. vulgare] and H. hexastichon [H. vulgare var. vulgare] are the spp. most used for malting. H. hexastichon is hardier, ripens more rapidly, cult. in Scotland, Ireland. In the elevated or N parts of the kingdom, four-rowed barley, commonly called bere or bigg is cult. Victoria bere, a new var., said to be so productive as to be worth cult. even in lowland districts (Encyclopaedia Britannica 1893: Brewing: Barley). Malt is the grain of any cereal artificially germinated, which converts part of the starch to soluble sugar and dextrin; this is caused by a nitrogenous ferment, diastase. Usually use barley and bere or bigg. Still some doubt as to exactly how the conversion occurs. 100 parts by weight of barley yield 80 parts kiln-dried malt and 2-3 parts of dried radicle and plumule, called ‘malt dust’. The malt tax in the U.K. has recently been repealed; in 1880, an equivalent duty on beer has been subst. By this, malt is now used for feeding and other industrial uses, and brewers have greater latitude in selection & use of raw materials. A bushel of malt is defined by statute as equivalent to 42 lbs. malt or corn of any description. [considerable detail on the tax.] Brewers for domestic use and for the use of their own farm laborers are exempt from duty when the ann. value of the house occupied by the brewer is not more than £10. Since passage of the Act, barley continues to be almost the only raw material used in wort. However brewers no longer confine themselves to the heaviest and plumpest growths, but use lighter foreign-grown barley. It was expected that raw grain, and esp. maize [Zea], would be much used with malt in the mashings. A ‘maize beer’ has been made, one third maize and two-thirds malt, but this has not found favor, either on the score of quality or of cheapness. Malt is also the raw material from which the whisky of Scotland & Ireland is chiefly distilled. It is also the source of the best qualities of table and pickling vinegars. The diastase or maltin in malt has a great solvent power over starch, so malt is much used in preparing starchy foods for infants. In the form of a malt extract it has a considerable reputation in pharmacy. (Encyclopaedia Britannica 1893: Malt) The name whisky or whiskey orig. with the Celtic inhabitants of Ireland & Scotland: uisge, ‘water’; prob. an abbreviation of uisquebaugh, ‘water of life’. Manuf. is still closely assoc. with those two countries. Distilled spirit was first popularly known as aquae vitae, and was chiefly a medicine. Only in the mid-17th cent. did it come into use as an intoxicating beverage in Scotland. 1655, Glasgow town council issued regulations for persons who ‘brew, sell and tap ail and acquavitae’. 1660, the first excise duty imposed on ‘acquavitae’ consumed in England. In 1684, 527,492 gallons paid duty; a million gallons by the end of the century, 8,2000,000 gallons in 1743. In England people drank mostly gin, a rectified & flavored var. of whisky. 1736, the Gin Act, to check the demoralization caused by the drinking habits of the people. In Scotland & Ireland, attempts of the excise authorities to control distilling and derive revenue from it led to unlimited smuggling. Still have illicit distillation. Whisky was orig. made from malted barley, fermented & distilled in a common pot-still. Now with continuous stills that yield a ‘silent’ or flavorless spirit, the alcoholic liquor sold as whisky may be made from any cereal grain, malted or unmalted, also from potato starch, grape sugar, many other substs. Three kinds in the U.K. 1) Malt whisky from malted barley alone, distilled in a pot-still. The malt is dried over a peat fire, which gives part of the flavor. This is the pure Highland malt whisky of Scotland. 2) Grain whisky, includes most of the Irish whiskey of commerce, is made from raw barley with a little malted barley to change starch to sugar in the wort. Also made in a pot-still. 3) Plain spirit is from barley, rice, other cereals, distilled in the Coffey patent still. This is made into gin, British brandy, other drinks. May be blended with pot-still spirits, to prod. a drink sold under blind names. Only the finer qualtities of matured malt and grain whiskey can be used as single or unblended spirit. In the US distilled chiefly from corn & rye [Secale]; wheat & barley malts are little used. When spirit is distilled as whiskey, it keeps its agreeable flavor. However fusel oil is contained in alcohol; it is acrid to the taste and stupefying in its effects, and must be extracted. Whiskey is greatly improved with age. It becomes mellow with an agreeable flavor after several years, and draws a reddish color from the barrels. The barrels are usually charred to enhance the color. In the financial year ending 31st March 1886, there were 10 distilleries in England, 127 in Scotland, 27 in Ireland. In that year, 38.9 million gallons distilled, 26.3 million gallons consumed, 2.8 million gallons exported. Total excise revenue from manuf., sale & consumption was £13 million. Distilled spirits are now a steadily declining [?] source of revenue. In the US, distilled spirits are the principal, and increasing, source of internal revenue. In the year ending 30th June 1887, 969 grain distilleries, 77.8 million gallons distilled, including fruit brandy. Total revenues were $65.8 million; this includes the tax on whiskey, fruit brandy, rum, etc.; from whiskey alone, $2.2 million (Encyclopaedia Britannica 1893: Whisky) Herodotus said that the Egyptians, being without vines, made wine from corn. However so many mentions of the grape in the Old Testament that prob. this is mistaken. Pliny said that Egyptians made wine called zythium from barley. In Spain called celia or ceria, in Gaul cerevisia. Archelochus, fl. 700 BC: the Greeks had already learned the art of brewing from the Egyptians. Aesculus 470 BC: Greeks used barley ‘wine’ in daily life as well as at festivals. Dioscorides mentioned 2 kinds of beer, zythos and koirmi, but does not give enough info. to distinguish them; both are from barley. He also said beer from wheat was made in Spain, Britain. Tacitus 1st cent. AD: beer was the usual beverage of the Germans, they knew how to make barley into malt. Plautus called it Cerealis liquor, the drink used at the solemn festival of Ceres, goddess of corn. The art of malting and the use of beer said to have been intro. in Britain by the Romans; before this had used water, milk and mead. Virgil used the name for barley in the plural, hordea, as we do that of oats. Pliny tells of hordearii gladiatores, fencers whose sustenance was barley. Soldiers under Julius Caesar drank beer and vinegar. The vinegar was made v. strong, diluted with water when on the march. Monks prepared their malt with great care & skill, monasteries were remarkable for the strength and purity of their ales. Burton-on-Trent, England, the beer was famous in the 13th cent. A document 1295 specified that rent for some land was to be paid by the monks partly in beer (Encyclopaedia Britannica 1893: Brewing: History) In the early 1800s Burton-on-Trent near Darby had an extensive cotton trade, but the demands of the brewing trade made it difficult for any other trade to exist. The water there is impregnated with sulfate of lime, and the ale brewed using it is recognized as superior. The most famous of Burton ale prods. is India Pale Ale or Bitter Beer, first manuf. as a beverage suited to the climate of the East, about 1823. A vessel carrying hogsheads of India pale ale was lost in the Channel, and its cargo was sold in England. Since 1828 the pale ale trade has taken the lead in commercial transactions of the town (Encyclopaedia Britannica 1893: Burton-on Trent) The pale ale of Tasmania deserves particular notice. The climate is esp. favorable to hop-growing and malting, so the colony prod. its home supply and also exports to Australia (Encyclopaedia Britannica 1893: Brewing: Tasmania) The Russians drink kvass or quass, a thick sour beverage, not unlike bousa [Eragrostis & Sorghum], made from barley & rye flour, mixed with water and fermented (Encyclopaedia Britannica 1893: Brewing: Russia) Porter came into fashion by 1730. In the time of Queen Anne, the brewer was restricted to using malt and hops only, no unwholesome ingredients, specifically forbidden to use Cocculus indicus [Anamirta, Menispermaceae]. During the French war, when the price of hops was v. high, allowed coloring matters prepared from burnt sugar. 1817, forbidden again, no material to darken worts of beer except brown malt. Also prohibited were molasses, honey, licorice [Glycerrhiza, Leguminosae], vitriol, quassia [Quassia, Simaroubaceae], Cocculus indicus [Anamirta, Menispermaceae], grains of paradise [Aframomum, Zingiberaceae], guinea pepper [Xylopia, Annonaceae], or opium [Papaver, Papaveraceae]. 1872, also prohibited common salt, copperas, Indian hemp [Cannabis, Cannabidaceae], strychnine [Strychnos, Loganiaceae], darnel-seed [Lolium, [Poaceae], extract of logwood [Haematoxylon, Leguminosae], salts of zinc or lead, alum. 3 classes of adulterants. Those which give fictitious strength, eg. cocculus indicus, tobacco [Nicotiana, Solanaceae], opium, etc. Those which improve flavor & body, eg. grains of paradise, capsicum pods [Capsicum, Solanaceae], ground ginger [Zingiber, Zingiberaceae], coriander seeds [Coriandrum, Umbelliferae], caraway seeds [Carum, Umbelliferae], sweet flag [Acorus, Araceae], licorice, molasses, salt. Those which give bitterness, eg. quassia, chiretta [Swertia, Gentianaceaea], horehound [Marrubium, Labiatae], gentian [Gentiana, Gentianaceae] (Encyclopaedia Britannica 1893: Adulteration: Beer) Herodotus: The Egyptians themselves, those who live in the corn country [as distinct from the marsh lands] are the best skilled in history of any men that I have ever met. They drink a wine which they obtain from barley, as they have no vines in their country. Note by translator: This is contrary to fact. About Memphis, Thebes, and all the corn country between, they ate wheaten bread and cult. the vine (Herodotus 1942 (BC 425?): Book 2 #77) Al-Hiba, the capital city of Lagash State, Sumer. Within the Bagara precinct, which belonged to Ningirsu, Lord of Girsu, the god of Lagash, D.P. Hansen 1992 found the second oldest brewery so far known anywhere in the world. . The Al-Hiba brewery, ebappir, had a dedicated building for grain storage rooms, ovens, tanks and vats. One room was filled by a huge oven, whose dome in corbeled mud-brick had a diam. of no less than 5 m. The earliest brewery, discovered by Jeremy Geller 1992 as part of the Hierakonopolis complex in Egypt, has radiocarbon dates of 4,719 +/- 34 b.p., calibrated at 3,500-3,400 B.C. Egyptian beer is made of partly baked loaves of coarsely ground wheat or barley, and therefore assoc. with ovens. Beer was a staple in Egypt as in Sumer (Maisels 1999: 166) Beer is mentioned in Sumerian texts from more than 5,000 years ago. Starting in the 1950s, scientists have debated the notion that beer, not bread, was the impetus for development of agric. Nearly every culture has invented its own concoction. Historically, brewing was home-based, part of the meal prep. As organized societies grew, brewing also grew in scale, and eventually it became a function of the state. Beer was given to laborers or soldiers, incorporated into religious or state functions. The history of beer is mainly from writing or drawings, not from archeol. Thousands of years ago in Iraq, each city-state had its own brew-master. Drinking vessels that prob. held beer have been found at archeol. sites worldwide, but little physical evidence for large-scale breweries. Such a brewery would contain storage vats and fermenting pots much larger than for home use, and kilns that could heat large volumes of liquid. Barry Kemp, U of Cambridge, England, found one of the oldest & best-attested potential breweries was at Hierakonpolis in S Egypt, dated 5,000 years ago. Large well-heated conical vats encrusted inside with a cereal-based residue; the vats appear to have been permanent structures. Another may be at el-Amarna in Middle Egypt, 3,500 years ago Kemp et al found ovens, charred grains, jars, large vessels. Might have been a brewery or a bakery, but drawings at the site suggest a brewery. Vindolande, England, a Roman fort manned by German soldiers along Hadrian’s Wall. Robin Birley found tablets from A.D. 100, some mention beer. Found drinking vessels and two flues, larger than for a home-based brewery. This is the earliest evidence of non-domestic beer brewing in Europe. Traces of wine tannins have been found in vessels excavated at various sites. However beer is low alcohol and low acid, leaves no such remains (Science News 2004: 216) Calcium oxalate is known to brewers as ‘beerstone’, because it precipitates out when making barley beer. Patrick McGovern 1992 found that beerstone was identified as constituting a distinctive residue in a jug from Godon Tepe in Iran, dated 3500-3100 BC (Science News 2004: 367) In the earliest Sumerian and Akkadian writings on clay tablets, there is a ref. to beer as a part of a man’s daily wage. Babylon, the goddess Siris was patroness of beer, later replaced by Ninkasi. Brewed by the temple priestesses. Six or more kinds of beer mentioned by name. Shu-bad, queen of Mesopotamia, drank her beer from a golden cup through a golden straw. By-prods. used to fatten cattle, make a sort of bread. In Egypt hek is mentioned in a Book of the Dead dated ca 4,000 BC; hekmi was a word in the Egyptian language until recent times. Medical works of 5,000 years ago list over 100 medicines using beer as a base. Rameses III was given 30,000 gallons a year as a libation. By 3,000 BC inebriation was a problem, with laws to control it. Osiris taught Egyptians to brew from barley & grapes. Beer like wine was offered for sustenance on the Journey after death. One of the toasts in drinking was: Here’s beer for your spirit. Greek writers such as Aesculus believed that beer in the early dynasties was so poor that only women drank it. Bible, in Deuteronomy, the Nazarines had to abstain from ‘strong drink’, and the Levites could not drink it before going to the tabernacle. This may have been the barley beer the Israelites learned to brew in Egypt. Rabbanical tradition that during the Babylonian captivity, the Jews remained free of leprosy by drinking barley beer made bitter with hops [??]: siceram ex lupulis confectam. Dioscorides 1st cent BC: Britons used a barley beer called carmi. A diary of one of the Pilgrims on the Mayflower: a landing at Plymouth was made because ‘we could not now take time for further search or consideration, our victuals being much spent, especially our beere’. Manhattan Island had a brewery in 1612, eight years before the Pilgrims landed (Emboden 1972) During the 7th cent. A.D., under King Srong-tsan Gam-po, Tibet overran upper Burma & W China. Eventually he was bought off with the gift of a Chinese princess, Wen Chieng in 641 A.D. Under her influence the Tibetan language was set to a Sanskrit-derived alphabet, and a decadent form of Indian Buddhism fused with the national Bombo demonolatry to form the Lamanistic religion. Chinese technology – pottery making, water mills and looms – and Chinese customs were adopted. During this period the Tibetans were intro. to rice wine or samshu, and barley malt or chang. Tibetans abhor water, consider it bad for the health, always drink tea [Camellia, Theaceae] or beer. Tea is drunk almost exclusively in the monasteries and among nomadic herdsmen. In agric. provinces, barley is cheaper than tea; they make & consume large quantities of chang. Also make arak, distilled chang. In some of the lowland valleys, buckwheat [Fagopyrum, Polygonaceae] or Eleusine millet [Poaceae] is used to make chang, alone or mixed with barley. Tibetans make 2/5 of the barley crop into chang, 3/5 into tsamba. For chang, whole grain barley is boiled until all the water is gone, then spread on bamboo mats, bought in Bhutan exclusively for this, or on a clean blanket. a yeast cake made from barley flour is mixed with the barley, now called lum. Before the lum is completely dry, it is put in narrow-necked pots which are sealed with skins. After 3-10 days it ‘smells right’ – the first liquid is drained off in the form of a potent clear yellow oil, the best quality brew. Water is again added to the pot, warm water if a sour brew is wanted, cold water for a sweet brew. The third brew is weaker and more sour than the second. The refuse from the third brew is given to cows & pigs. Make arak by distilling the first brew beer. A simple process is recorded from ancient India. Malted barley is placed in a large vessel which has a small cup suspended in it. The mouth of the vessel is covered with a tight-fitting pan with a round bottom, filled with ice or cold water. As the vapor rises, it condenses and drips into the cup. The liquid in the cup is tested by a flame: when it no longer burns, the distilling is ended. Always serve chang & arak by adding hot stones or boiling water. Tibetans consume large amts. of chang, esp. in Tsang Province, but seldom to excess. However a Tibetan host takes it as a complement if his guests cannot get up from their cross-legged position. In Tibet it is not socially correct for women to become more intoxicated than men, so they usually drink the second brew. Children are usually given the third one. In India, the only malt beverage prepared by the Aryans was the soma nectar, made from barley meal and the juice of bitter Asclepias and Sarcostemma [Asclepiadaceae]. This malting process appears to have been borrowed from Mongolians, already familiar with chang and arak (Wilkes 1968: 347) Clay tablets from Sumer & Assyria over 6,000 years old depict beer brewing. Egyptian documents from 2,600 BC describe barley malting and beer fermentation. Columbus found the Indians drinking a beer made from maize [Zea], chicha. Hops seem to have been somewhat used by the ancient Finns. In the 9th cent. used as a regular constituent of beer in Germany. Beer was often stored in caves for lagering. Refrigeration allowed year-round lagering, intro. about the time of the Civil War. Pasteurization was intro. 1873. First comm. brewery in US in 1623. Beer is brewed from malt, the germinated seeds esp. of barley. Quality barley is specially grown in the Midwest from two-row cvs. rich in carbohydrate. Thoroughly cleaned using blowers, sieves. Steep in huge vats of water for 2 days, then in germinating drums with controlled temp. & humidity for 4-6 days. Dry after the primary root has developed but before the coleoptyle has ruptured, in kilns to a final temp. of 180º F. Enzymes develop during germination, incl. diastase which hydrolyses starch etc. to sugar. Most of the starch in the barley has already changed to sugar. A higher temp. during malting prod. a darker, caramelized malt used for bock-type beers. In the brew house up to 35% adjuncts are added to the mash: rice, corn, wheat, sometimes syrup. Pulverized and a measured amt. of water added. Enzymes in the malt act on insol. materials in the adjunct, during predigestion or soaking at 170º F. Mash strained,then rinsed or sparged in lauter tubs. The spent grains can be used for stock feed. Liquid wort boiled with hops 2-3 hours, gives the bitter flavor, coagulates high-molecular weight nitrogenous substs. and incr. its keeping qualities. If a liquid-hop concentrate is used, add the hops after fermentation, don’t boil. Cooled wort is taken under sterile conditions to starting cellars, where measured quantities of yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Ascomycetes, are added. Special strains. Large tanks, cool temp. Beer is fermented at 37-49º for 8-11 days, bottom fermentation. Ale is fermented at 50-70º for 5-6 days, top fermentation. Carbon dioxide is given off; may be saved for later carbonization or other purposes. One day in the starting cellar gives green beer. Transferred to lagering cellars, where secondary fermentation may proceed for several days. Suspended materials coagulate with spent yeast cells, skimmed off. Then the young beer is aged for weeks or months. Generally just before bottling or kegging, a small amt of green beer is added, with beechwood [Fagus, Fagaceae] chips, a nucleus for yeast growth. This gives a final rapid fermentation and carbonation. Or carbon dioxide may be added under pressure. Bottled beers generally pasteurized, keep better. Draft beers traditionally not pasteurized and must be kept refrigerated. Or filter, add calcium diethylate to sterilize them. Chemically beer is 5% ethyl alcohol. 100 million barrels of beer/ year in the US, at 31 gallons/ barrel. World prod. is several times this. Am. beers usually clearer & lighter than Eu. beers, less hopping. Often less than 1 lb./ barrel in the US, up to 4 lbs./ barrel in Eu. (Schery 1972: 599) Ale is a beer prod. by top fermentation: the yeast floats on the wort rather than working at the bottom of the tank. Usually higher alcohol content, paler, more tart, higher conc. of hops than beer. Porter and bock beer are dark sweetish ales, prod. from caramelized malt. Stout is a porter of somewhat higher alcohol content and stronger hop flavor. Kvass or Quass is a Russian beer made of barley and rye, with peppermint flavoring. Pombe or Bousa is made in Africa from sprouted millet grain. Marwa is a beer made from millet in the Himalayas. Hard cider is from apples or other fruits. Palm toddy is from the sweet sap of palm trees. Chicha in South America is from maize, manioc, plantain, or other starchy materials. Pulque in Mexico is from spontaneous fermentation of crushed Agave [Agavaceae] leaves. Sake in Japan from fermented rice. (Schery 1972: 602) Whiskies: distillate of fermented grain, suitably aged, usually in white oak wood. Usually about 50% alcohol, 100 proof. Below 160 proof the distillates may be called bourbon, rye, etc.; 160-190 proof can only be called whiskey, above 190 proof it is ‘grain neutral spirits’. Scotch whiskey from barley malt, usually smoke-cured over open peat fires. Irish whiskey malt is kiln-dried, otherwise the same. American whiskeys are chiefly from maize [Zea] (Schery 1972: 609) Malt is mostly used in beer-making, also in distilling, baking, making other foods, drugs. Grain steeped in water 24-96 hrs., then spread on large ventilated floors, allowed to sprout for 5-10 days, with carefully controlled temp. & moisture. Dried in large kilns 2-3 days, starting with low temp., gradually incr. to 180º F. Aged 4-8 weeks, shipped to manufacturers. During malting, insol. starch changes to maltose sugar. Also releases enzymes: diastase which changes starch to sugar, peptase which changes certain proteins (World Book Encyclopedia. 1965: Malt) Wort is the sweet liquid from the action of malt on a mixture of water and crushed barley, corn or other grain; the whole is known as mash. Worts are of various kinds, depending on the grain and the temp. Some are made into beer, ale, porter, etc, others are fermented to a mash that is distilled for alcohol or whiskey (Encyclopedia Americana. 1954: Wort) The largest single brewing plant in the world is the Anheuser-Busch Inc. of St. Louis MO. Plant covers 66 acres. In 1959, 8,064,756 US barrels of beer, greatest volume ever by a single brewery. Largest in Eu. is Guinness Brewery at St. James Gate, Dublin, 60.3 acres, the largest exporter of beer, ale & stout in the world. Arthur Guinness Son & Co. Ltd. of Dublin in 1959 prod. 1,211,479 Imperial barrels, or 1,690,194 US barrels. (Guinness) The oldest brewery is the Weihenstephan Brewery in Freising near Munich; founded in 1040. The Anheuser-Busch plant covers 100 acres; after modernization is completed it will be able to prod. 12 million barrels a year. In 1978 Anheuser-Busch sold 41,600,000 barrels. The largest brewery on a single site is Adolph Coors Co. of Golden, CO, which sold 12,800,000 barrels in 1978. Arthur Guinness Son & Co., Ltd., founded 1759 in Dublin. Exports of Guinness from Ireland in 1979 were 937,068 bulk barrels, or 1,482,833 half-pint glasses a day. The world’s largest beer garden is the Munich Biergarten, founded 1901, space for 5,200 people. Has sold up to 2,640 gallons in a single day. The weakest liquid ever marketed as a beer was a sweet erzatz beer, brewed in Germany by Sunner, Colne-Kalnik, in 1918. Had less than 0.2% alcohol. The world’s strongest & most expensive beer is EKU Kulminator Ui-Typ Hell from Kulmback, W Germany. Retails for up to $1.70 for a half-pint bottle. At 20º, is 13.2% alcohol by volume. The longest bar with beer pumps was built in 1938 at the Working Men’s Club, Mildura, Victoria, Australia. The counter is 298 ft. long, served by 27 pumps. The longest temporary bar was erected by the Falstaff Brewing Corp., 336 ft. 5″, on Wharf St., St. Louis MO in June 22, 1970. The longest ever was at Erickson’s on Burnside St., Portland, OR, 1883 to 1920. It ran continuously around and across the main saloon, measured 684 ft. Beer was 5 cents for 16 fl. oz. The largest beer-selling establishment in the world is the Mathöser, Bayerstrasse 5 Munich. Daily sales reach 100,000 pints. Est. 1829, demolished in WW II, rebuilt by 1955, now seats 5,500 people. However may be exceeded by the consumption at the Dube beer halls in the Bantu township of Soweto, Johannesburg, S Africa, where average consumption is 7,160 gallons, 57,280 pints, but on some Saturdays far more than that. (Guinness 1980) The nation with the highest beer consumption is Belgium; average of 30.6 gallons a year. In Northern Terr., Australia, beer consumption is unofficially est. to be close to 52 gal. per person a year (Fullerton 1975: Beer Consumption) All malt drinks shipped from Eu. down the Red Sea are spiked with a chemical preservative which tended to act like the blow of a closed fist. But it was no less refreshing. (Miller) In Egypt beer is made of grain ground in stone mortars, then moistened, stamped in a cask, laid in a sieve, and kneaded till it dripped; was the daily intoxicant. It was kept in earthenware jars closed with plugs of Nile mud. Aristotle wrote that those drunk with wine used to fall forwards, and those drunk with beer fell backwards. (Nile) 1742, Lond. & Country Brew.: The Liquor (for it is Six-pence forfeit in the London Brew-house if the word Water is named) … (Oxford English Dictionary. 1971: Liquor) Pudding-ale was cheap ale, prob. from its being thick like pudding. 1377, Langl., P.Pl.: Penyale and podyng ale she poured togideres For laboreres and for low folk (Oxford English Dictionary. 1971: Pudding-Ale) 1858, Maunder: By the aid of moisture, the barley is made to germinate, that is, to put forth roots and almost its acrospire or first sprout; and by the aid of fire, the roots are destroyed, and the acrospire prevented from bursting the skin. 1616, Surflet & Mark: Turne the malt upon the floore twice or thrice a day, least forbearing so to doe, the corne heat, and by that meanes, aker-spire, which is to sprout at both ends, and so loose the heat of the graine, and make the malt good for nothing. 1742: Long. & Country Brewer: Turning the Malt often, that it neither moulds nor aker-spires (Oxford English Dictionary. 1971: Acrospire) 1775, Mortimer: For want of turning, when the malt is spread on the floor, it comes, and sprouts at both ends, which is called acrospired, and is fit only for swine (Oxford English Dictionary. 1971: Acrospired) Fettle, to prepare or dress. 1884, Cheshire Gloss: Fettled ale, ale mulled with ginger & sugar (Oxford English Dictionary. 1971: Fettled) Nappy: having a head, either foaming or strong; prob. transferred from napped cloth. 1807, Crabbe Par. Reg.: Thy coat is thin, it’s worn to th’ thread! but I have nappy beer (Oxford English Dictionary. 1971: Nappy) Bock beer was orig. ‘from Einbeck’, a town in Hannover. Corrupted to ‘ein Beck’, which means a goat. Today the goat is the symbol for bock beer. (Lambert) Bock bier is a Bavarian lager beer, so called because it is so strong its consumers prance about like goats. Brewed in midwinter, ready to drink in early spring (Funk & Funk 1972) Ale is from Scandinavian öl, called ealo in Britain. Beer from A.S. beor from bere, barley; written bere as late as James I. Hops intro. from Holland, used for brewing in 1524, prohibited by Act of Parliament 1528, but the prohibition soon fell into disuse. Ale is made from pale malt, is lighter colored. Porter & stout from malt more highly dried. In many parts of England ‘beer’ incl. ale, porter, stout, but in London the word ref. to the dark forms only. Word ale was intro. by the Danes and the word beer by the Teutons. The Alvismál: Called ale among men, but by the gods called beer (Brewer 1978: Ale) Buttered ale is a beverage made of ale or beer without hops, mixed with butter, sugar, cinnamon (Brewer 1978: Buttered Ale) In Scotland it was customary to throw a handful of salt on top of the mash to keep the witches from it. Salt really has the effect of moderating the fermentation and fining the liquor (Brewer 1978: Salt in Beer) ‘X’ on beer casks indicates that the beer has paid 10 shillings duty, hence it came to mean beer of a certain quality. Two or three crosses are mere trade-marks, to convey the notion of beer stronger than that which paid duty (Brewer 1978: X) Wassail, a salutation used on New Year’s Eve and Day over a cup of spiced ale. Anglo-Saxon waes hael, be whole, be well (Brewer 1978: Wassail) Nappy ale is a strong ale, so called either because it makes one nap, or else because it has a nap or frothy head (Brewer 1978: Nappy Ale) Humming ale, strong liquor that froths well, and causes humming in the head of the drinker (Brewer 1978: Humming Ale) Lager in German means a storehouse, so lager beer is a strong beer made in March for keeping (Brewer 1978: Lager Beer) In medieval times most taverns were in private homes. Village women dominated home brewing, but the taverners who ran ale-houses were mostly men. Whoever had a quantity of ale could put up a sign, a staff with a garland or some such symbol, and sell ale. Both men & women drank at taverns after the day’s work was done, and brought home ale to drink with meals (Hanawalt 1986: 28) The quality of ale varied greatly. Some was so thick it was rather like fermented bread, better-quality ale was more potent and clearer. Small ale was a v. light ale that went through the wort a second time. Ale was a nourishing and intoxicating drink that had a special social significance. In joining a parish gild it was common to pay the entry fine in quarters of malt. In wills a grandchild or god-child might be left a lamb or some malt (Hanawalt 1986: 55) All manor courts kept the provisions of the Assize of Bread and Ale, which regulated price and quality as well as measure. Ale had to be sold in measured containers, not in cups and bowls (Hanawalt 1986: 132) Less wealthy peasants diversified their labor investments between agriculture and a side occupation. Wealthy peasants diversified the use of their capital. Some bought expensive brewing equipment to set their wives to work in a lucrative trade. A brewer’s inventory in a will showed that he had £14 10s 11d tied up in brewing equipment (Hanawalt 1986: 134) In the Carolignian Empire, some considered it a penance to have to drink beer if wine was lacking. In the N & E regions of the Empire, beer was a popular drink. It was made from cereals reduced to malt in the malatura or camba, boiled down and mixed with hops by specialized craftsmen. The regulations of the Abbeys of Saint-Denis, Saint-Troud, Corbie and others gave instructions on how the breweries were furnished and the beer or ’cervisia’ brewed. Beer like wine could not be kept very long, so the amount needed had to be produced to order (Riché 1978: 176) Greek [?] historians recorded that the Gauls had 2 sorts of beer: zythus made with honey for the rich, and corma with no honey for the poor. After a great famine, Domitian ordered all vines in Gaul uprooted to make room for corn. This rigorous measure must have caused beer to become even more general. Protus allowed vines to be replanted 2 centuries later. Pliny said that beer in Gallic was called cerevisia, and the grain used to make it was brascca. The upper classes drank both wine & beer, the people drank only beer. Later wine in central Gaul became so common & cheap that all could drink it. In the N where the vine could not grow, beer continued to be the national beverage. Charlemagne ordered that persons who knew how to brew should be attached to each of his farms. All monastic houses had breweries. In the time of St. Louis, v. few breweries in Paris. They were given privileges, but eventually all moved out because of lack of demand. 1428, breweries reappeared in Paris, prob. because of trade with the rich towns of the Flemish bourgoisie. However in 1415 and 1482, times of scarcity, brewing was temporarily forbidden because of the quantity of grain not available for food. Only toward the end of the 16th cent. was the flower or seed of hops added to the oats or barley. Estienne Boileau’s Book of Trades, 13th cent., listed both cervoise and another beer called godale, name prob. German god ael, good beer. Stronger than cervoise; the Picards and Flemish called it ‘double beer’. A modern French word, godailler, to tipple. After the Crusades, spices came into fashion, and beverages as well as food were loaded with them: allspice [Pimenta, Myrtaceae], juniper [Juniperus, Cupressaceae], resin [?Pinus, Pinaceae], apples [Malus, Rosaceae], bread-crumbs, sage [Salvia, Labiatae], lavender [Lavandula, Labiatae], gentian [Gentiana, Gentianaceae], cinnamon [Cinnamomum, Lauraceae], laurel [Laurus, Lauraceae]. The English sugared beer, the Germans salted it. At times they even put darnel [Lolium, Poaceae] into it, at the risk of rendering the mixture poisonous. High-flavored beers became so fashionable, that to describe the lack of value in anything it was compared to ‘small beer’. Sometimes sweetened with honey, or scented with ambergris or raspberries [Rubus, Rosaceae]. (Lacroix) Germania ch. 23. Their drink is a liquor made from barley or other grain, which is fermented to prod. a certain resemblance to wine. If you indulge their intemperance by plying them with as much drink as they desire, they will be as easily conquered by this besetting weakness as by force of arms. (Tacitus, ch. 23) The ancient Celtic name for beer is cerevigia, the drink of Ceres, goddess of grain. Modern French cervoise, Sp. cereveza, It. cervegia. Porter: at first its chief consumers were porters & other laborers. Lager, a German beer that ‘lies’ in storage for some months before being drunk. (Pei 1941) The Babylonian seal of King Hammurabi, 2200 B.C., a contemporary of Abraham: The king and his friends are quaffing beer through golden straws. (Ripley 6th 1958) In Sumer 40% of grain was used for beer. Dionysius fled from Mesopotamia, acc. to Greek legend, because everyone there drank beer. In Sumer 8 types of barley beer, 8 from an early type of wheat, 3 from mixed grain. Goddess Ninkasi, the lady who fills the mouth, was in charge of beer prod’n. Neolithic housewives learned to make grain digestible by letting it sprout. Later found that bread made from sprouted grain, dried & pounded, kept better than that from conventional flour. Early beer was made from ‘bread’, not raw sprouted grains: the bread was partly baked, broken up, soaked in water for a day, and the liquid strained off. Old jars for soaking made better beer than new ones. Brewers were generally women who sold the beer from their homes. Later as the soil soured there was no barley to spare for beer, changed to date wine [Phoenix, Palmae]. In Egypt the commonest beer was called haq, brewed from red barley (Tannahill 1973) Athene disguised as Mentor to Telemachus: Go to the wooers and make ready corn, the wine in jars, and barley-flour, the marrow of men, in well-sown skins. Telemachus to his mother: .. pour me barley-meal into well-sewn skins, the grain of bruised barley-meal. (Odyssey Book 2) Circé gave the men a mess of cheese and barley-meal and yellow honey with Pramnian wine, and mixed harmful drugs with the food. (Odyssey Book X) Pactyes, a Lydian in charge of tax collecting in Lydia for Cyrus, used Sardian gold to rebel. When Mazares the Mede marched on Sardis he fled to Mytilene in Lesbos and thence to Chios. The Chians dragged him from the temple of Athene the Guardian and surrendered him to the Persians, who rewarded them with land in Mysia called Atarneus. The Chians thereafter refused to use barley meal from Atarneus to sprinkle on a sacrifice, or to make any cake from the grain grown there, or use any produce of the district for religious purposes (Herodotus 1942: 77) In ancient times a person accused of robbery was given a piece of barley bread on which Mass had been said. He had to say, May this piece of bread choke me if what I say is not true. If he could eat it without choking, he was innocent. Tradition ascribes the death of the Earl Godwin to choking on such a piece of bread (Brewer 1978: Choke) Dew-drink is a draught before breakfast. In some countries the harvesters are allowed a drink of beer before they start work (Brewer 1978: Dew-drink) You are as long a-coming as Cotswold barley. Cotswold in Gloucestershire is a v. cold bleak place on the wolds, exposed to the winds. Vegetation is v. late, but yields a good late crop of barley (Brewer 1978: Cotswold Barley) Gerst-monat, barley month in Anglo-Saxon; September. The time of beer-making (Brewer 1978: Gerst-monat) de Candolle 1884: Barley has a better claim than wheat to be Demeter’s grain. The staple grain in Greece in the time of Homer. One of the oldest if not the oldest cereal cult. by the Aryan race. Used in religious rituals by ancient Hindus as well as ancient Greeks. Wiedemann 1903: In the Valley of the Kings, a royal fan-bearer of ca. 1500 BC had a bier with a mattress of reeds covered with linen painted with Osiris’ image. Inside was a mixture of vegetable mould, barley and a sticky fluid; the barley had shoots to 3″ long. Grenfell & Hunt 1902: In the cemetaries at Cyanopolis were many burials of Osiris figures, grain wrapped in a cloth and roughly shaped like a person, bandaged like mummies. Wilkinson 1814: also at Thebes. Hippolitus: A poem about the Eleusinian mysteries. The climax is the creation of a field of ruddy corn from a bare leafless expanse of the Eleusinian Plain, shown by Demeter to the royal family. In the Mysteries, the climax is the solemn communion with the goddess in a draft of barley-water from a holy chalice, and the sight of an ear of reaped corn. Roy 1915: In India the Oraons of Chota Nagpur hold the Karam festival on the 11th night of the moon. Seven days before the festival the maidens of the village spread sand on the floor of their dormitory and scatter a few handsfull of barley seeds. Every night until the festival they sit singing songs, sprinkling water on the seeds. On the morning after the festival they distribute the germinated seeds to the young men at the village akhra, then all dance at the akhra. The reason is no longer remembered, but perhaps a fertility dance for the crops. Crooke 1896: A barley feast is called Jâyî or Jawâra in Upper India, Bhujariya in the Central Provinces. Women distribute sprouted barley to their male friends who bind them in their turbans and clothing. Pliny said barley was the oldest food. In the oldest Vedic ritual, barley and not rice was the cereal employed. Burns, John Barleycorn’s death: They wasted o’er a scorching flame The marrow of his bones. But a miller used him worst of all, For he crushed him between two stones. In ancient art, Demeter & Persephone had crowns of corn [general word for grain], stalks of corn in their hands. In Greek the various kinds of grain are called Demeter’s fruits, in Latin they are Gifts of Ceres. The Boetians called October-November, Damatrius or Demeter’s month. They had a feast of mourning when they planted wheat, barley, etc., because Demeter was then in mourning for Persephone. At that time, the Pleiades set in the morning on Oct. 26th. Diodorus: Adonis festivals were held in spring & midsummer, not autumn. In the Mid-East wheat & barley are harvested in summer & spring, not fall. In Egypt the reapers lamented and called upon Isis when the cut the first corn (Frazer 1959) In India before 650 AD, when the king came back triumphant from a war, the women threw grains of roasted barley under his feet. Also strewed roasted grain when the king went to his consecration (Auboyer 1965) When bread was first intro. into Greece, only beans [Faba, Leguminosae], poppy-seed [Papaver, Papaveraceae], acorns Quercus, Fagaceae] and asphodel roots [Asphodelus, Liliaceae] were eaten. The myth of Demeter and Triptolemus sanctified its use (Montaigné 1961) Shabuoth, the Jewish Festival of Weeks, orig. called the Feast of the Barley. The most joyous of all ancient Hebrew holidays (Encyclopedia Americana. 1954: Shabuoth) Livy: the state paid for the maintenance of the equites, younger members of patrician families. The aes hordearum, or barley money to maintain the horses, was raised by a tax on widows and orphans. It seems inconceivable that there were so many rich widows (Encyclopaedia Britannica 1893: Equites) In Heraldry, rye and barley or orge were borne by Rye. Three ears of big were borne by Grandorge Bigland (Encyclopaedia Britannica 1893: Heraldry) In Britain still believe that boiling 3 snails in barley water and giving the liquid to drink will cure a cough. It is essential that the patient is unaware of the constituents of his drink! (Waring) Grains of barley in predynastic remains in Egypt, also in pile dwellings of Switzerland. The meal offering of jealousy in Num v.15 seems to have been the only use of barley in Hebrew ritual. Use in bread indicates poverty. Mentioned in Judges vii 13, Ruth ii 17, II Kings iv 42, John vi 9, 13. A Babylonian recipe for beer dates from 2800 BC. Rune II of Kalevala, Vainamoinen fells the forest to let the barley grow. Indra is called He who ripens barley. Indians use it when celebrating the birth of a child, at weddings, funerals, during the rites of Staddha. Pliny: to remove a boil, rub 9 grains of barley around it, throw them into the fire. Herbalists say barley is a herb of Saturn, more cooling than wheat. Used for fever, ague, heat in the stomach. For swellings of ears, throat, neck, boil barley meal with fleawort [Plantago, Plantaginaceae], make into a poultice with honey and oil of lilies [Lilium, Liliaceae], apply warm. (Leach 1972: Barley) After the Tuatha Dé Danann were defeated by the Milesians, Manannán sent them into the hills and mounds of Ireland, and gave them three gifts. One was the Feast of Age at which Goibniu served his ale, which kept old age from touching them (Leach 1972: Feast of Age) Beltane cakes were large round oatmeal or barley cakes made for the Beltane festival. Usually divided into portions drawn by lot, and eaten as part of the ritual. Whoever draws the ‘black bit’ previously blackened with charcoal is the sacrificial victim, and has to run or jump through the fire three times (Leach 1972: Beltane Cakes) Barden, Brandon, from Anglo-Saxon: a valley where barley grows. Barlow, barley field. (Lambert) Java: the name is from jawa, barley. (Pei 1949) ) Japanese saying: ‘To catch carp with boiled barley: a good investment.’ Japanese regard the carp as the noblest of fresh-water fish, and barley is the cheapest food. ‘Better than rice meal at home is barley meal at the neighbor’s.’ (Buchanan) Church Ale: Festivals at which ale was the chief item of refreshment, orig. from the wakes. People brought food, ale was brewed strong for the occasion and sold by church-wardens, who used the profits to keep the church in repair, or for alms. Whitsun-ales were the last remnant of the custom, local survivals in England until recently. Also Bride-Ales or Bridals. Chancellor’s ale, an ale of unusual strength still brewed at Oxford; 16 bushels of malt are used to the barrel. Two wine-glassfuls will intoxicate most people. Kept in oak bell-shaped casks, not tapped until 2 years old. On very special occasions the Dean will grant an order for a pint of the liquor, the largest quantity ever allowed at one time. (Walsh) Drinkers in Lower Saxony, Germany, gulp down beer, kümmel and vodka from 3 glasses at the same time. (Ripley 19th) Valid species (GRIN 2006)
Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum (K.Koch) Körn
Synonyms: Hordeum intermedium ., Hordeum spontaneum C.Koch
Common names: Wild Barley (Moore) Two-row Barley (Flannery)
H. spontaneum: Except for wild oats, each of the cereals formed dense extensive stands esp. in drier places where other less drought-tolerant grasses were less able to compete. Wild barley, Hordeum spontaneum, achieved its greatest abundance in the woodland-steppe, 200-300 mm rainfall (Moore, Hillman and Legge 2000:58) H. spontaneum: Photo of a dense extensive stand of wild barley on a steep north-facing slope of the Jebel Abdul Aziz in NE Syria. No trace of either wild wheats or wild ryes were found in the area (Moore, Hillman and Legge 2000:59) H. spontaneum: The hunter-gatherers who settled in Abu Hureyra, 11,500-11,000 BP, would have had wild wheats and ryes along the edge of the park-woodland, 300-400 mm rainfall, and wild barleys from woodland steppe (Moore, Hillman and Legge 2000:63). H. spontaneum: Abu Hureyra was located at the edge of a vast park-woodland region. Stands of barley grew mostly in somewhat drier locations, and its grain was almost completely absent from charred remains of wild cereals. Today it is found in dry places subject to natural disturbance, in most of Syria, Turkey, Iran, and Turkmenistan (Moore, Hillman and Legge 2000:332) H. spontaneum: At Ohelo II, Early Kebaran, ca. 19,300 b.p.: a site that may have been used in spring for grains and in fall for fruits & nuts. Flint tools, basalt mortars & pestles; had wild barley, emmer and two types of oats. Barley grains were by far the most plentiful. Kislev et al 1992: dense stands of wild barley are common in the spring within a few hundred meters of the site, on the piedmonts of the Lower Galilee R. (Maisels 1999: 93) H. spontaneum: Netev Hagdad, Pre-Pottery Neolithic A, 10,000-9,250 b.p., near Jericho. Bar-Yusef et al 1991 used flotation methods, identified more than 50 species of plants, incl. oats [Avena], emmer [Triticum], barley, goat grass [Agropyron]. Had bins & silos for grain. Thousands of grains & rachis fragments of barley recovered. This site may represent an early phase of field-crop agric., a monoculture of wild pre-domesticated barley. By the Pre-Pottery Neolithic B, 9,200-8,000 BP there is good morph. evidence for domesticated cereals. Kislev 1992 presented a model for development of agric. During the 8th millennium, domesticated cereals were not a staple. The first crops cult. were pulses [Leguminosae], figs [Ficus, Moraceae], other tree fruits, possibly also flax [Linum, Linaceae]; agriculture was on a small scale, and local. Olive [Olea, Oleaceae] & flax appear for the first time in this period. Only in the 7th millennium were domesticated cereals extensively cult. (Maisels 1999: 105) H. spontaneum: Barley had been tentatively radiocarbon-dated to 19,060 B.P. at Wadi Kubbaniya in Egypt by Wendorf et al 1979. But in 1983 they reported a date of 4850 B.P., based on analysis by Electron Spin Resonance Spectroscopy and Linear Acceleration Radiocarbon Counting of the barley grains themselves, which were not assoc. with the charcoal that yielded the earlier dates. Most archaeologists would have let the joy of the early dates over-rule their own scientific curiosity (Flannery 1986: 11). H. spontaneum: van Zeist & Casparie 1968, 1970, reported dates of 8200-7500 BC for grains parched in earth ovens at Tell Mureybit on the Euphrates in N Syria. Incl. einkorn wheat Triticum boeoticum [Poaceae], lentils Lens sp. [Leguminosae] and bitter vetch Ervum sp. [Vicia, Leguminosae]. None of the cereals were phenotypically domestic, they lacked the tough rachis and fragile glumes characteristic of domestic wheats & barleys. The nearest wild stands of grain were 100 to 150 km away, so must have been cult. before physical changes occurred (Flannery 1986: 15). H. spontaneum: The Natufian Culture, Palestine to the Euphrates, 10,500-8,500 B.C.E.: end of glacial age, used wild grains, had flint sickle blades in bone hafts, stones & pestles to grind flour. Neolithic 8,500-4,300 B.C.E., change from food gathering to agric., later animal husbandry. 8,500-7,500, irrigation farming, cult. barley & wheat, wide flat querns to make flour. 7,500-6,000 2-row barley, emmer wheat. (Mazar 1990) H. intermedium: From H. spontaneum. 6 rows, no awns or hoods. Inferior yields, little grown. 2n14. Sometimes called H. vulgare (Schery 1972: 435). Valid taxon & H. spontaneum; H. intermedium not in GRIN (GRIN 2006)
Hordeum vulgare subsp. vulgare POACEAE
Synonyms: Hordeum deficiens Steud., Hordeum distichon L., Hordeum vulgare var. distichum, Hordeum hexastichon L., Hordeum vulgare var. hexastichum, Hordeum sativum Jesson, Hordeum zeocrithon L., Hordeum zeocriton L.
Common names: Red Sea Barley (Sturtevant) Fan Barley, Spratt Barley, Battledore Barley (Britannica) Sprat Barley (Sturtevant) Palm Barley, German Rice, Rice Barley (OED)
H. deficiens: One of the 2-rowed barleys cult. in Arabia, Abyssinia (Sturtevant 1972: 306). H. deficiens: Lateral spikelets reduced to glumes. 2n14. Sometimes called H. vulgare (Schery 1972: 435). var. distichum: Most commonly grown for malt are the 2-rowed barleys, whose prob. ancestor is H. spontaneum of Asia. These barleys have sterile lateral spikelets so only two spikelets develop (Hortus Third 1976: 569). var. distichum: the most commonly grown; only the central spikelet is fertile (Willis 1973: 569). H. distichon: The common or 2-rowed barley is H. distichon. V. many vars. of this sp. are grown (Encyclopaedia Britannica 1893: Barley). H. distichon: Lateral spikelets reduced but still present. 2n14 (Schery 1972: 435). var. hexastichum: The hull remains intact even during threshing. Most have a long beard, the awn, 2-3″ beyond the kernel. In some vars. these are shaped like a fishhook, causes pain to those working with the mature crop, and hurts the mouths of livestock. About half the harvest used for livestock feed, 40% as malt, mostly for alcoholic beverages, 10% for human food (Encyclopedia Americana. 1954: Barley). In 6-rowed barleys, all spikelets are fertile. Includes the so-called 4-rowed barleys or bere, the hardiest of barley cvs. Higher protein content, so used mainly for food (Hortus Third 1976: 569). var. hexastichon: The Six-rowed barley & Four-rowed barley. Bere grows to 70º N in Norway (Willis 1973: 569). The common 4-rowed barley is H. vulgare, the 6-rowed barley is H. hexastichon (Webster’s 1958: bear). H. hexastichon: Lindley says H. hexastichon is a domesticated form of H. distichon. Cult. by Egyptians, Jews and E Indians [?] in earliest times. Grains found in Egyptian catacombs. Common in Swiss Lake Dwellings; the ears from Wangen have 10-11 grains per row, smaller & shorter than present vars. (Sturtevant 1972: 307). Bere or Nepal Barley may be native of Mesopotamia or of the Volga region. Was cult. in ancient Greece. Thunberg 1784 listed it among edible plants of Japan. Cult. in Scotland as a spring crop, in Ireland as a winter crop. Cult. at great elevations in the Himalayas, Tibet. Mostly a botanical curiosity in Eu. A naked-seeded sp., resembles wheat (Sturtevant 1972: 307). var. hexastichum: Arabic name sha’ir, cult. a little in the Sahel of W Africa (Dalziel 1948: 529). H. sativum: Cult. approaches Malaya, does not reach it. Will grow in mts. of Java, but not cult. there. Malted barley used in Chinese medicine, grain found in Chinese pharmacies of Malaya (Burkill 1966: Vol. 1 page 1213). H. zeocriton: Parent of cult. barleys. Lindley says it is undoubtedly a result of cult., prob. from H. spontaneum (Sturtevant 1972: 308). H. zeocriton: Philipps 1706: Palm-barley, a grain fuller and broader than common barley (Oxford English Dictionary. 1971: Palm-Barley). Valid taxon & most synonyms . H. v. var. distichum & H. v. var. hexastichum not in GRIN, nor is H. zeocriton (GRIN 2006)
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